Revised and Updated!
Note: A much condensed version of this essay - that is a much condensed version -
is available in the January/February 2013 edition of the Skeptical Inquirer Magazine
The First Interpretation
Of all the verses in the Bible, the one that has been the most controversial and inexplicable - and hence the most popular for debate - is Revelation Chapter 13, Verse 18. This verse reads in toto: "Here is the wisdom. He who is having the understanding (lit. "mind"), let him count the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man, and its number is 666."
For nearly two thousand years, a highly popular interpretation of the verse is that the number 666 stands for some individual who is the ultimate incarnation of evil, and when he shows up we'll have the end of the world. And for a goodly chunk of those two thousand years people have been trying to figure out just who the heck that person is.
But whoever - or whatever - the verse really refers to, what is striking is how often people claim that the verse identifies some celebrity or public figure, especially one who doesn't share their own personal philosophy, beliefs, or politics. For instance, in the mid-nineteenth century when the Seventh Day Adventists were founded, some writers pointed out you could derive the number from the name of the Adventists' founder, Ellen Gould White. There were also Protestant writers who derived the number from the titles of the Popes. And a supporter of the British opposition party of the 1890's found the number in the name of the prime minister, William Ewart Gladstone. But in the end the world kept moving along quite nicely, thank you.
Now you would think the repeated failures of the prediction for two thousand years would give pause that something might be just a bit off - at least with the method, if not the manner - of our process. After all, if after two millennia we have just failed, failed again to identify our miscreant, maybe that wasn't the purpose of the verse after all. So perhaps it is OK to question whether this type of number fiddling really is something the serious Bible scholar should be doing at all. Or perhaps we should eschew the pastime entirely and direct our activities to more fruitful activities - like watching television, hanging out with our friends, or really studying the Bible.
So to learn more, as a Great American Leader - or at least an American Leader - once said, "Let us continyeh."
Of course, as with most stories everyone should begin at the beginning and ask when did it all start. In other words, just who was the first person to be equated with the verse?
Well, that's pretty straightforward. Revelation was most likely written down in the latter half of the first century. That means the earliest candidate the verse can reasonably refer to is none other than our old friend, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus. Lucius, of course, was the gentleman (and a designation we use most loosely) who later adopted the name Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus.
For fourteen disastrous years Nero ran the Roman Empire, and as we know, he was the first emperor who really began the deadly persecutions of the Christians. The other emperors before Nero, like Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius, either didn't even know about Christians (Augustus died when Christ was a teenager) or didn't realize there was a difference between the Christians and Jews. Claudius - the historian Suetonius tells us - had trouble with followers of a Jewish leader (the phrase Suetonius used) named "Chrestus". But rather than throw them to the lions, he just booted the Jews - again the word used - out of Rome.
But once Nero was in charge, Christians were thrown not only to lions, but to bears, wolves, tigers, panthers, dogs and just about any other animals the Romans could find. Nero also crucified Christians and burned them alive (sometimes both at once). Early Christian writers say the number of Christians martyred was in the thousands, a number which has some support in the Roman writings as well.
For his part, Nero just said he was getting tough on crime. It was the Christians, he said, who had started the Great Fire of 64 C. E. Although it seems to us that Nero was being particularly cruel, he felt he was just following Roman law. Condemnation to wild animals (damnatio ad bestias) was a standard Roman punishment, and immolation was the legally ordained sentence for arson. The Great Fire was indeed one of the true watershed dates of history during which Nero did not, that's did not play the fiddle.
Nero did not play the fiddle.
Why should the early Christians believe this passage was a reference to Nero? Well, there is a way you can derive 666 from Nero's name. True, the procedure might seem a bit complicated, and it's easy to dismiss it as artificial and contrived. But it's really no more complicated than the codes that people used in later times.
First you need to write Nero's name in Hebrew - that is נרון קסר. This can be transliterated into English as Neron Qesar. Actually a more literal rendition is Nrwn Qsr since Hebrew normally doesn't writes vowels although here "w" substitutes for "o". The "n" after Nero is added because the Hebrew was in turn a rendering of the Greek form, Νερων Καισαρ, that is, Neron Kaisar, since Greek, not Latin, was the international language of the time.
Now Hebrew also used letters for representing numbers. Aleph to Tet was 1 to 9, Yod to Tsadi was 10 to 90, and Qof to Tav was 100 to 400. Sum the numbers in נרון קסר, and hey, presto! you get 666.
Admittedly it took us quite a few steps to get from Nero's name to the number of Revelation 13:18, more steps than is comfortable for many puzzle solvers. But there is some additional support for this "historical" interpretation. First the coding system is indeed the traditional way to write numbers in Hebrew. That means the code is not an artificial invention just to force the name to code to 666. A code based on Hebrew also makes a lot of sense if you wanted to keep the code secret from the Romans, something that was desirable at the time.
Finally note that if you drop the Greek ending n, that is, you use the Latinization of the name, you get the name Nero Caesar (in Greek, Νερω Καισαρ and in Hebrew, נרו קסר), and you lose fifty points. The same code thus produces 616, and in some early manuscripts of Revelation the number cited is indeed 616. We'll return to this important point later.
However, the idea that the verse might actually be historical in intent, not prophetic, has not been popular. After all, the verse is a bit ambiguous, and once Nero was dead, it was clear the Christians' troubles were far from over. Certainly there were Roman Emperors worse than Lucius.
But then Christianity took control of the Roman empire (and made the official Roman religion by Theodosius in 380 C. E.). Now there was a dilemma. Just who was the verse referring to? There was only one church and so it didn't seem fair to finger any ecclesiastical colleagues.
Then in 1518, a young upstart priest, Martin Luther, wrote a letter containing 95 theses (which he did not tack onto a door) about why his bosses in Rome were off tack. Then after the final split with Rome, followers of Martin found ways to derive 666 from the papal titles. It was at this time that we see the beginning of the modern tradition of assigning the number to fellow Christians of different denominations, a tradition which later expanded to include politicians, political factions, and organizations whom you don't like.
One thing to remember. The Bible is mum on any rules for relating a name to 666 or 616. So there's plenty of flexibility. But the drawback to flexibility is that some of the "methods" require a bit of a stretch to succeed. But we'll give it a try with a simple common name.
Clearly anyone with this name must be of a most fiendish nature. We can prove this by assigning numbers to letters as A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, ... z = 26 and then adding them up.
C + h + i + p + C + o + o + p + e + r
= 3 + 8 + 9 + 16 + 3 + 15 + 15 + 16 + 5 + 18
This number - hence the name - has a most sinister relation to both 616 and 666:
108 X 616.666 / 100 = 666
True we had to round up (you actually get 665.999), but the only reasonable conclusion is the individual so identified is of a most diabolical nature.
A Most Diabolical Nature
(At least if you round off)
Like we said, this last method of "proving" the said individual is the true subject of Revelation 13:18 is a bit ridiculous, stretched, and strained. Probably about the only people who would agree with this assignment are those who don't particularly like the individual identified - which after the posting of this essay might not be a completely insignificant number of people.
Well, are there simpler ways for coding a name to the verse? Well, actually yes. The easiest way - and the method of choice - is a simple substitution formula. That is, you first have a method for systematically assigning a number to each of the letters of the alphabet. Then you pick a name and sum up the numbers, and - so the thinking goes - if you get 666, then you've found Mr. Baddie. Nothing can be simpler than that, and so we'll run through some examples that have been popular in years past.
For instance, let's go with the name "Hitler" since a goodly number of people would agree if anyone is eligible for the Worst Person Who Ever Lived Award, it was him. To start the coding, we'll select the number of the centurion - the man in whom Christ said there was no greater faith (Matthew 8:8-10) - as the starting point. So the obvious code is A = 100, B = 101, C = 102, D = 103, ..., Z = 125.
And sure enough, it all adds up.
An example like this is what convinces a lot of people that there's "something to" the exercise. For many it's hard to believe the name of a man so unequivocally evil can be so easily coded to a specific verse. Surely this can't be simply due to chance.
But the more curious - that is, those seeking "understanding" - will find that a little experimentation confirms what history has shown. You can indeed extract the number from other names and from names where the evilness is a bit more ambiguous. For instance, let's use the same code for Hitler on the evil individual we mentioned above. No, we don't mean Nero. We mean:
Hmmmm. Something seems amiss here. Certainly people who spend their time drawing and posting wiseacre cartoons, caricatures, and essays may be pretty irresponsible individuals. But it has not been customary to equate them with Hitler. Clearly we need to delve further into the matter.
But first, let's try another example.
Now if we do want to expand our definition of an evil person from one of the worst mass murderers in history to "someone-who-doesn't-share-our-politics-or-personal-beliefs" we can magnify our database of candidates considerably. For instance, there was one assignment that was particularly popular in the early 1970's - popular, of course, with people who were not fond of the then-president Richard Nixon.
Some of you may remember that Nixon's security advisor and later Secretary of State was Dr. Henry Kissinger, originally of Harvard University. So let's take the code where A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156. That is, assign each letter to an increasing multiple of 6. Then you can add up the numbers in Henry's last name. Do that and you get:
|K||=||11 × 6||=||66|
|I||=||9 × 6||=||54||S||=||19 × 6||=||114|
|S||=||19 × 6||=||114|
|I||=||9 × 6||=||54|
|N||=||14 × 6||=||84|
|G||=||7 × 6||=||42|
|E||=||5 × 6||=||30|
|R||=||18 × 6||=||108|
This coding actually created a wee bit of a stir when it first came out. It even became a bit of a vogue to use this application of Revelation as an indication the world would come to end sometimes in the 1980's. One scenario is Nixon would suspend elections, declare himself absolute ruler, and put Henry as his Number One factotum. The two men would then set off World War III thereby creating a nuclear holocaust which would then trigger Judgment Day.
Alas, there was one minor problem. The apocalypse didn't happen, the world didn't end, and today Henry is hardly remembered by anyone under fifty.
Besides, can someone who once read the "Top Ten" list on Late Night with David Letterman really be all that bad?
Can Henry really be all that bad?
The problem is evident. Because the code is never specified, it's up to the individual to see what will fit. So the usual process is to pick a candidate and see if it you can come up with a code. If at first (or second or third) you don't succeed, just try, try again.
Of course, if you can rationalize a code from a scriptural reference, tanto mejor. But such rationalizations are extremely easy using a book which is filled with numbers, and indeed where the sentences themselves are referenced numerically. Particularly useful are passages that refer to counting.
Take the passage which states, "The families of the tribe of Levi, however, were not counted along with the others. You must not count the tribe of Levi or include them in the census of the other Israelites." These sentences are the first two verses starting with verse 47 of the First Book of Numbers. So an obvious assignment, then, is to start at number 47 and work with increments of two. That is, A = 47, B = 49, C = 51, ..., Z = 97.
Well, with this code we can again get confirmation of the identity of the most evil, insidious, and downright ill-mannered person in the world.
At this point we might have the curmudgeonly Doubting Thomases step in and pooh-pooh our Quest for the Code. That is, they say there are so many names and codes that if we find a name that adds up to 666, it's just a simple statistic fluke, and what we're doing is a bunch of bullshine, claptrap, and horse hockey. But if one of the Doubters tells you that, ask them to pick a name and make it sum to 666. You'll find they will struggle.
Another criticism the Doubters raise is that coding is after-the-fact and can be multilingual. That is, if you can't get a name to code with the English alphabet, then you can write the name in something like Greek (this was, in fact, how Gladstone's name was coded). And you can also come up with any number of ways to code any alphabet. Of course, you can find a way to make any name to sum up to 666.
But one thing you notice. Doubters who claim any name can be coded to 666 never prove it. They merely speculate and wave aside the Quest for the Code as numerological tomfoolery. Huh! Just what you expect of such malcontents!
But that does raise the question. Sticking to just one alphabet and language, just how many names can be coded to 666? But let's also limit our coding to the simplest of substitution formulas like the ones we used above. And also how many names can be coded to the number using identical codes?
But more to the point, can we keep our investigation to the level of middle school math?
Well, let's give it a try.
If you go back and see how we coded our letters, there were two basic methods. In one method we picked a multiplier (6 or 9 in our examples), multiplied the alphabetic location of the letter (A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, ..., Z = 26) by the multiplier, and summed the numbers from the name.
For the other code, we picked an initial number for the letter A (which was A = 100), and then incremented the successive letters from there. The increments were single digits, but we could, had we wished, counted by some other increment like twos (A = 100, B = 102, C = 104, ..., Z = 150, which codes the name "Trump" - whoever he is - to 666). We could also have chosen a different starting number and coded the alphabet something like A = 50, B = 52, C = 54, ..., Z = 100. But whatever code we select we then assign the numbers to the name, sum up the numbers, and get our 666.
Now what appears to be two different codes is just a single method. People who use these or similar codes - although they don't usually realize it - are trying to parameterize the following equation:
For those whose middle school math may be a bit rusty, we'll explain our terms. First, b(i) is the location of letter i in the particular alphabet. That is, in English, b(A) = 1, b(B) = 2, b(C) = 3, ... , b(Z) = 26. The sigma, Σ, represents, of course, the summation of the numbers assigned to letters in the name. The letters m and c represent any integers which makes the equation true.
In a nutshell, then, people who say they have - quote - "figured out the code" - unquote - have found values of m and c that satisfy the equation. That is, they have assigned values to m and c that make the part of the equation on the right side equal the number on the left, that is, 666.
(Note: The relation between m and c and the actual "code" for the individual letters is quite simple. The number assigned to the letter "A" is always m + c. Then the number for each successive letter is found simply by adding m to the number of the previous letter. That is, if you have a code where m = 2 and c = 98, you have the alphabetic assignments A = 100, B = 102, C = 104, ..., Z = 150 which as we saw above, codes what's-his-name.)
Now using middle school math, it is possible to show that the equation can be somewhat simplified as:
where n is the number of letters in the name. Using this formula makes the calculations a bit easier to use and to analyze.
Here's where a bit of "understanding" (i. e., math) is needed. First because there are two parameters, m and c, but only one equation - there is no unique solution in solving for m and c. That is, if a name can be coded to 666 in one manner, there are - with some restrictions - alternative codes that work for that name as well.
And for any name how many alternative codes are there? Well it varies, but we can show you how to derive the alternate codes.
Again using middle school math, you can show that if you decrease (or increase) parameter m by the amount x, all you need for a new code is to increase (or decrease) parameter c by an amount y where y is equal to:
Of course, to keep the code a simple substitution, then both x and y need to be positive integers. In other words the length of the name, n, must be exactly divisible into either x or Σb(i). But even with this restriction many names can be coded in more than one way.
For example, the name "Kissinger" coded to 666 using A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156. This means the equation has the solution where m = 6 and c = 0.
Now let's use m = 3 instead. That means x = 6 - 3 = 3. So if you use the equation to calculate y, you find y = 37.
We now add y to the old value of c to get the new value of c. So the new value of c = 0 + 37 = 37.
These calculations show you can now code Henry's last name to 666 using m = 3 and c = 37. That is you start at 40 (remember the number for the letter A is always m + c), and increment by 3's. Our new code, then, is A = 40, B = 43, C = 46, ..., Z = 115.
As we see in the table - and like they say in the commercials - it really, really works:
In other words, if you wanted to - quote - "prove" - unquote - that Henry is the bad guy, you could use one code just as easily as the other. Ergo, no unique solution.
As a second example, "Hitler" was coded using A = 100, B = 101, C = 102, ..., Z = 125. This corresponds to the solution where m = 1 and c = 99. But if you use the formulas, you will find if you increase m by 1 and decrease c by 12 you can generate a whole series of new codes. So you can use m = 2 and c = 87. Or m = 3 and c = 75. Or m = 4 and c = 63. Or m = 5 and c = 51, m = 6 and c = 39, m = 7 and c = 27, m = 8 and c = 15, and m = 9 and c = 3. The next code would then be m = 10 and c = -9 (i. e., negative nine). Oddly enough, this latter coding still produces perfectly acceptable letter assignments where A = 1, B = 11, C =21, ..., Z = 251. (By the way, the code for the full name of the scurrilous knave of whom we will not dignify by another writing of his name was derived from the solution m = 2, c = 45).
Hopefully these tables with the original code and first five alternatives will illustrate the point better.
Mathematically, of course, there's no reason you can't have codes with m and c being negative, or that A is assigned a larger number than the other letters. But the most typical coding schemes have A assigned the smallest number and you increase the letter values as you go down the alphabet. Intuitively, people think those codes "make more sense" although no codes are more valid than any other.
Such collections of solutions to an equation are called families in the mathematics jargon. Having families - that is, multiple solutions - to an equation means it is easier to create a code for a given name than most people think. So what people think is a unique assignment of the code to a name is merely one of a number of alternatives. But remember, none of the alternative codes are any more valid than another.
We now come to the most important point of our investigation. It's not just that you can get 666 from a single name by more than one code. But neither the summation of the alphabetic locations of the letters - that is, Σb(i), - nor the number of letters in a name, n, is unique to any given name. So not only do some names code in different ways, but many different names code to 666.
But hold on. We already knew you can code more than one name to 666. We saw that earlier.
But you said many different names? If there are many different names that code to 666, why did you say earlier that it was difficult to find a code? So get specific.
Just how many names can be coded to 666? And how many names share the same codes? And for heaven's sake, avoid any fancy contrived codes! Keep all letters as positive integers with A as the smallest value. And only increment the letter values only by a single positive integer.
Now tell us how many names code to 666!
Well, with our nice simple equation, a computer, and the Internet, these questions can finally be answered.
The US Census Bureau has published a list of the 151,671 most common American surnames. So with patience - and by pushing desktop computational power to the limits - we are able to 1) find which names can code to 666, 2) determine the corresponding alphabetic codes, and 3) tally up the total.
What we find is surprising. Out of the 151,671 names, there are a minimum of 119,283 names - count 'em - that's 119,283 names - that can be coded to 666.
That's 78.6 % of all names.
What was that number again?
In fact, you can view a partial list in a separate window - the names that code to 666 and the fewer number that don't - if you click here. We had to limit the number to "just" 18,839 names due to the desire not to crash browsers. But you can download a .csv text file which should be compatible with many spreadsheets and which has all the names with the codes if you click here. (Depending on your internet connection and computer speed, it may take a little bit for the files to open as they are fairly large).
We emphasize that 78.6 % is the minimum percentage of names that can be coded to 666 since we had to keep values of m and c within practical bounds. Also, as we mention in the Appendix there were some "trivial" solutions that we omitted. Nor did we include codes where the letters were assigned to negative numbers.
But even omitting the trivial solutions and limiting the letter increment (m) to 1 or 2, - that is, we are counting down the alphabet by ones or twos - then 48,996 or 32 % of the names coded to 666.
So now we can set the Doubting Thomases straight.
Coding a name to 666 is not just a "statistical fluke"
It is, in fact, the statistical norm.
It's not unusual if a name codes to 666.
What's unusual is if it doesn't.
(Note: It is also possible - see the references below - to calculate the margin of uncertainty for the percentage of names that code to 666. With some additional - admittedly beyond middle school - mathematics, we can calculate the actual percentage as 78.6 % +/- 0.2 %. In other words, if you find a surname that isn't in our list, we can still be 95 % certain that the probability the name will code to 666 is somewhere between 78.4 % and 78.8 %.)
When we say 78.6 % of the names can code to 666, we were only using surnames. That is last names. Of course, by permitting the freedom to use first names, initials, titles, and whatnot as you wish, the number of names that work increases. In other words, pick out any person, and it's a near certainty that you can code some version of his or her name to 666 using a simple substitution code.
If this last claim is a bit hard to swallow, don't worry. We will follow the teaching of scripture and provide proof (John 20:24-29) and will present over 300 interesting names that all add up to 666 together with the specific code for each. Keeping with tradition, we have not restricted assignments just to proper names, but also to organizations, political parties, religions, activities, and when you get down to it, anything or anyone that you want to prove isn't very nice. We don't count punctuation marks, and the parts in parentheses are explanatory and not part of the name.
|SMITH||A = 82, B = 86, C = 90, ..., Z = 182|
|JONES||A = 110, B = 112, C = 114, ..., Z = 160|
|SMITH AND JONES||A = 30, B = 32, C = 34, ..., Z = 80|
|GEORGE WASHINGTON AND JOHN ADAMS||A = 5, B = 7, C = 9, ..., Z = 55|
|JAMES MADISON||A = 37, B = 39, C = 41, ..., Z = 87|
|MARTIN VAN BUREN||A = 24, B = 26, C = 27, ..., Z = 49|
|ANDREW JACKSON||A = 32, B = 34, C = 36, ..., Z = 82|
|WILLIAM H. HARRISON||A = 20, B = 22, C = 24, ..., Z = 70|
|J. TYLER||A = 97, B = 98, C = 99, ..., Z = 122|
|JAMES K. POLK||A = 46, B = 47, C = 48, ..., Z = 96|
|JAMES BUCHANAN||A = 36, B = 38, C = 40, ..., Z = 86|
|ABRAHAM LINCOLN||A = 32, B = 34, C = 36, ..., Z = 82|
|ABRAHAM LINCOLN, THE RAILSPLITTING PRESIDENT||A = 7, B = 8, C = 9, ..., Z = 32|
|ABE LINCOLN, THE PRESIDENT WITH THE STOVE PIPE HATS||A = 5, B = 6, C = 7, ..., Z = 30|
|ABRAHAM LINCOLN, HUNTER OF VAMPIRES||A = 2, B = 4, C = 6, ..., Z = 52|
|R. B. HAYES||A = 85, B = 86, C = 87, ..., Z = 110|
|JAMES A. GARFIELD||A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156|
|CHESTER A. ARTHUR||A = 26, B = 28, C = 30, ..., Z = 76|
|BENJAMIN HARRISON||A = 32, B = 33, C = 34, ..., Z = 57|
|WILLIAM MCKINLEY||A = 34, B = 35, C = 36, ..., Z = 59|
|J. CALVIN COOLIDGE||A = 36, B = 37, C = 38, ..., Z = 51|
|HERBERT HOOVER||A = 40, B = 41, C = 42, ..., Z = 65|
|FDR||A = 197, B = 200, C = 203, ..., Z = 272|
|HARRY TRUMAN||A = 34, B = 36, C = 38, ..., Z = 84|
|D. D. EISENHOWER||A = 36, B = 38, C = 40, ..., Z = 86|
|JFK||A = 198, B = 201, C = 204, ..., Z = 273|
|LYNDON BAINES JOHNSON||A = 24, B = 25, C = 26, ..., Z = 49|
|R. M. NIXON||A = 38, B = 42, C = 46, ..., Z = 138|
|JAMES E. CARTER||A = 29, B = 32, C = 35, ..., Z = 86|
|RONALD W. REAGAN||A = 42, B = 43, C = 44, ..., Z = 69|
|G. H. W. BUSH||A = 72, B = 74, C = 76, ..., Z = 122|
|WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON||A = 8, B = 10, C = 12, ..., Z = 58|
|G. WALKER BUSH||A = 50, B = 51, C = 52, ..., Z = 75|
|BARACK OBAMA||A = 45, B = 48, C = 51, ..., Z = 120|
|WILLARD MITT ROMNEY||A = 14, B = 16, C = 18, ..., Z = 64|
|HIRAM SIMPSON GRANT||A = 16, B = 18, C = 20, ..., Z = 66|
|GENERAL R. LEE||A = 44, B = 46, C = 48, ..., Z = 94|
|THOMAS "STONEWALL" JACKSON||A = 19, B = 20, C = 21, ..., Z = 44|
|MAGGIE "IRON LADY" THATCHER||A = 12, B = 14, C = 16, ..., Z = 62|
|A. C. L. (Tony) BLAIR||A = 77, B = 78, C = 79, ..., Z = 102|
|DISRAELI||A = 9, B = 13, C = 17, ..., Z = 109|
|ALFRED THE GREAT||A = 31, B = 33, C = 35, ..., Z = 81|
|ALFRED THE OK||A = 52, B = 53, C = 54, ..., Z = 77|
|ALFRED THE ROTTEN||A = 34, B = 35, C = 36, ..., Z = 59|
|QUEEN VICTORIA||A = 40, B = 41, C = 42, ..., Z = 65|
|ALBERT OF SAXE-COBURG, THE ROYAL CONSORT||A = 9, B = 10, C = 11, ..., Z = 34|
|ALBERT OF SAXE-COBURG, ROYAL SUGAR DADDY||A = 10, B = 11, C = 12 ..., Z = 35|
|QUEEN ELIZABETH II (II = 2)||A = 28, B = 30, C = 32, ..., Z = 78|
|PRINCE PHILLIP||A = 10, B = 14, C = 18, ..., Z = 110|
|PRINCE ALBERT||A = 37, B = 39, C = 41, ..., Z = 87|
|PRINCE PHILLIP AND HIS PRINCE ALBERT||A = 12, B = 13, C = 14, ..., Z = 37|
|KING EDWARD||A = 48, B = 51, C = 54, ..., Z = 123|
|HENRY VIII TUDOR (VIII = 8)||A = 52, B = 54, C = 55, ..., Z = 77|
|RICHARD III (III = 3)||A = 87, B = 88, C = 89, ..., Z = 112|
|KING GEORGE||A = 49, B = 51, C = 53, ..., Z = 99|
|KING GEORGE II (II = 2)||A = 38, B = 40, C = 42, ..., Z = 88|
|BIG GEORGE||A = 52, B = 55, C = 58, ..., Z = 127|
|RAMESES II (II = 2)||A = 74, B = 76, C = 78, ..., Z = 124|
|RAMESES III (III = 3)||A = 53, B = 57, C = 61, ..., Z = 153|
|RAMESES IX (IX = 9)||A = 73, B = 75, C = 77, ..., Z = 123|
|KING TUT||A = 68, B = 70, C = 72, ..., Z = 118|
|UNITED STATES PRESIDENT||A = 20, B = 21, C = 22, ..., Z = 45|
|FUTURE KING OF ENGLAND||A = 25, B = 26, C = 27, ..., Z = 50|
|DR. ALBERT SCHWEITZER||A = 26, B = 27, C = 28, ..., Z = 51|
|REV. J. TWITCHELL||A = 4, B = 8, C = 12, ..., Z = 104|
|REVEREND W. GRAHAM||A = 15, B = 18, C = 21, ..., Z = 90|
|REVEREND BOB JONES||A = 22, B = 24, C = 26, ..., Z = 72|
|SAINT ANSELM||A = 50, B = 51, C = 52, ..., Z = 75|
|ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT||A = 3, B = 6, C = 9, ..., Z = 78|
|RODERIGO BORGIA (Pope Alexander VI)||A = 50, B = 51, C = 52, ..., Z = 75|
|BISHOP OF ROME (Papacy Title)||A = 34, B = 36, C = 38, ..., Z = 84|
|MARTIN LUTHER||A = 31, B = 33, C = 35, ..., Z = 81|
|MARTIN'S THESES||A = 15, B = 18, C = 21, ..., Z = 90|
|OCTAVIAN||A = 64, B = 66, C = 68, ..., Z = 114|
|DIOCLETIAN||A = 42, B = 45, C = 48, ..., Z = 117|
|NERO CAESAR||A = 31, B = 35, C = 39, ..., Z = 131|
|LENIN||A = 94, B = 98, C = 102, ..., Z = 194|
|STALIN||A = 88, B = 90, C = 92, ..., Z = 138|
|TROTSKY||A = 26, B = 30, C = 34, ..., Z = 126|
|POL POT||A = 67, B = 70, C = 73, ..., Z = 142|
|USAMAH BIN LADIN (A more "correct" spelling)||A = 15, B = 19, C = 23, ..., Z = 115|
|FIDEL CASTRO||A = 33, B = 36, C = 39, ..., Z = 108|
|PANCHO VILLA||A = 51, B = 52, C = 53, ..., Z = 76|
|FRANCISCO CORONADO||A = 30, B = 31, C = 32, ..., Z = 55|
|CABEZA DE VACA||A = 9, B = 18, C = 27, ..., Z = 234|
|COLUMBUS||A = 71, B = 72, C = 73, ..., Z = 96|
|MAGELLAN||A = 69, B = 71, C = 73, ..., Z = 119|
|DA GAMA||A = 104, B = 106, C = 108, ..., Z = 154|
|ERNEST HEMINGWAY||A = 33, B = 34, C = 35, ..., Z = 58|
|JOHN O'HARA||A = 65, B = 66, C = 67, ..., Z = 90|
|GEORGE ORWELL||A = 23, B = 26, C = 29, ..., Z = 98|
|EMILY DICKINSON||A = 37, B = 38, C = 39, ..., Z = 62|
|TIMOTHY LEARY||A = 29, B = 31, C = 33, ..., Z = 79|
|JACK L. KEROUAC||A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156|
|NEAL CASSIDY||A = 33, B = 36, C = 39, ..., Z = 108|
|THE DHARMA BUMS||A = 42, B = 43, C = 44, ..., Z = 67|
|KEN KEASEY||A = 45, B = 48, C = 51, ..., Z = 120|
|BILL BURROUGHS||A = 28, B = 30, C = 32, ..., Z = 78|
|HERBERT HUNCKE||A = 32, B = 34, C = 36, ..., Z = 82|
|GREGORY CORSO||A = 30, B = 32, C = 34, ..., Z = 80|
|ALL BEAT WRITERS||A = 26, B = 28, C = 30, ..., Z = 76|
|ANY ROMANCE NOVELIST||A = 14, B = 16, C = 18, ..., Z = 64|
|THE UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION||A = 12, B = 13, C = 14, ..., Z = 37|
|THE MAGNA CARTA||A = 36, B = 38, C = 40, ..., Z = 50|
|QI (BBC Quiz Show)||A = 309, B = 311, C = 313, ..., Z = 350|
|STEPHEN FRY (QI Host)||A = 54, B = 55, C = 56, ..., Z = 79|
|ALAN DAVIES (QI Panelist)||A = 51, B = 53, C = 55, ..., Z = 101|
|RICHARD HALL (QI Panelist)||A = 53, B = 54, C = 55, ..., Z = 78|
|JO BRAND (QI Panelist)||A = 87, B = 88, C = 89, ..., Z = 112|
|PHILLIP C. JUPITUS (QI Panelist)||A = 32, B = 33, C = 34, ..., Z = 57|
|SARAH MILLICAN (QI Panelist)||A = 43, B = 44, C = 45, ..., Z = 68|
|DOON MACKICHAN (QI Panelist)||A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156|
|BRIAN ARTHUR JOHN SMITH (QI Panelist)||A = 22, B = 23, C = 24, ..., Z = 47|
|LEE MACK (QI Panelist)||A = 89, B = 90, C = 91, ..., Z = 114|
|SUE E. PERKINS (QI Panelist)||A = 87, B = 88, C = 89, ..., Z = 112|
|GYLES BRANDERETH (Former MP and QI Panelist)||A = 27, B = 29, C = 30, ..., Z = 77|
|TERRY WOGAN (KBE and QI Panelist)||A = 53, B = 54, C = 55, ..., Z = 78|
|ANGUS DEAYTON (Original Have I Got News for You Host)||A = 22, B = 24, C = 26, ..., Z = 72|
|PAUL JAMES MERTON (Have I Got News for You Panelist)||A = 22, B = 24, C = 26, ..., Z = 72|
|I. HISLOP (Have I Got News for You Panelist)||A = 72, B = 74, C = 76, ..., Z = 122|
|PABLO RUIZ PICASSO||A = 30, B = 31, C = 32, ..., Z = 55|
|M. BUONARROTI||A = 36, B = 38, C = 40, ..., Z = 86|
|GIAN LORENZO BERNINI||A = 16, B = 18, C = 20, ..., Z = 66|
|VAN GOGH||A = 76, B = 78, C = 80, ..., Z = 126|
|EDGAR DEGAS||A = 30, B = 36, C = 42, ..., Z = 180|
|WINSLOW HOMER||A = 42, B = 43, C = 44, ..., Z = 67|
|PAUL JACKSON POLLOCK||A = 16, B = 18, C = 20, ..., Z = 66|
|AUGUSTE RODIN||A = 20, B = 23, C = 26, ..., Z = 95|
|A. EINSTEIN||A = 45, B = 48, C = 51, ..., Z = 120|
|KURT GOEDEL||A = 45, B = 47, C = 49, ..., Z = 95|
|A. M. TURING||A = 12, B = 18, C = 24, ..., Z = 162|
|L. WITTGENSTEIN||A = 26, B = 28, C = 30, ..., Z = 76|
|BERTRAND WILLIAM RUSSELL||A = 8, B = 10, C = 12, ..., Z = 58|
|SOREN KIRKEGAARD||A = 35, B = 36, C = 37, ..., Z = 60|
|SIGMUND FREUD||A = 34, B = 36, C = 38, ..., Z = 84|
|CARL JUNG||A = 54, B = 57, C = 60, ..., Z = 129|
|BILL GATES||A = 47, B = 48, C = 49, ..., Z = 72|
|DONALD TRUMP||A = 49, B = 50, C = 51, ..., Z = 74|
|TRUMP'S HAIRDRESSER||A = 14, B = 16, C = 18, ..., Z = 64|
|JIMMY BLUE EYES||A = 28, B = 30, C = 32, ..., Z = 78|
|VERDI||A = 60, B = 62, C = 64, ..., Z = 162|
|MOZART||A = 82, B = 84, C = 86, ..., Z = 162|
|GROFE||A = 124, B = 125, C = 126, ..., Z = 149|
|SHOSTAKOVICH||A = 44, B = 45, C = 46, ..., Z = 69|
|PROKOFIEV||A = 62, B = 63, C = 64, ..., Z = 87|
|A. BORODIN||A = 57, B = 60, C = 63, ..., Z = 132|
|IGOR STRAVINSKY||A = 20, B = 22, C = 24, ..., Z = 70|
|JOHN CAGE||A = 42, B = 48, C = 54, ..., Z = 192|
|CARL ORFF||A = 30, B = 36, C = 42, ..., Z = 180|
|BROTHER JACK||A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156|
|CLYDE C. BARROW||A = 36, B = 38, C = 40, ..., Z = 68|
|BONNIE E. PARKER||A = 43, B = 44, C = 45, ..., Z = 132|
|JOHN DILLINGER||A = 14, B = 16, C = 18, ..., Z = 64|
|LUCKY LUCIANO||A = 33, B = 35, C = 37, ..., Z = 83|
|DUTCH SCHULTZ||A = 30, B = 32, C = 34, ..., Z = 80|
|WILLIAM TERRELL COOPER||A = 24, B = 25, C = 26, ..., Z = 49|
|C. S. LEWIS||A = 24, B = 30, C = 36, ..., Z = 174|
|CLIVE S. LEWIS||A = 49, B = 50, C = 51, ..., Z = 74|
|CLIVE "JACK" LEWIS||A = 29, B = 31, C = 33, ..., Z = 86|
|JACK LEWIS||A = 46, B = 49, C = 52, ..., Z = 121|
|J. R. R. TOLKEIN||A = 30, B = 33, C = 36, ..., Z = 105|
|JOHN RONALD TOLKEIN||A = 18, B = 20, C = 22, ..., Z = 68|
|FRODO BAGGINS||A = 38, B = 40, C = 42, ..., Z = 88|
|BILBO BAGGINS||A = 41, B = 43, C = 45, ..., Z = 91|
|PEREGRIN TOOK||A = 32, B = 34, C = 36, ..., Z = 82|
|DENETHOR||A = 63, B = 65, C = 67, ..., Z = 113|
|THE MILLENIUM||A = 34, B = 36, C = 38, ..., Z = 84|
|LAST YEAR||A = 60, B = 62, C = 64, ..., Z = 110|
|THIS YEAR||A = 59, B = 61, C = 63, ..., Z = 109|
|FORTUNE TELLERS||A = 35, B = 36, C = 37, ..., Z = 60|
|PROPHETS||A = 56, B = 58, C = 60, ..., Z = 106|
|FALSE PROPHETS||A = 6, B = 10, C = 14, ..., Z = 106|
|BAPTISTS||A = 71, B = 72, C = 74, ..., Z = 96|
|UNITARIANS||A = 55, B = 56, C = 56, ..., Z = 80|
|SOUTHERN METHODISTS||A = 11, B = 13, C = 15, ..., Z = 61|
|TELEVISION EVANGELISTS||A = 20, B = 21, C = 22, ..., Z = 45|
|PREACHERS AND HISTORY PROFESSORS||A = 11, B = 12, C = 13, ..., Z = 36|
|CATHOLICISM||A = 33, B = 36, C = 39, ..., Z = 108|
|PROTESTANTS||A = 18, B = 21, C = 24, ..., Z = 93|
|ATHIESTS||A = 60, B = 62, C = 64, ..., Z = 110|
|EVANGELICALS||A = 31, B = 34, C = 37, ..., Z = 106|
|SKEPTICS||A = 48, B = 51, C = 54, ..., Z = 123|
|SPIRITUALISM||A = 17, B = 20, C = 23, ..., Z = 92|
|RELIGION||A = 63, B = 65, C = 67, ..., Z = 113|
|HUMANISM||A = 72, B = 73, C = 74, ..., Z = 97|
|THE HOLY BIBLE||A = 37, B = 39, C = 41, ..., Z = 87|
|SECULAR WRITINGS||A = 20, B = 22, C = 24, ..., Z = 70|
|TEXIANS||A = 84, B = 85, C = 86, ..., Z = 109|
|OKIES||A = 90, B = 94, C = 98, ..., Z = 190|
|NEW YORKERS||A = 108, B = 110, C = 112, ..., Z = 158|
|WESTERNERS||A = 53, B = 54, C = 55, ..., Z = 78|
|HENRY MCCARTY (Billy the Kid's Real Name)||A = 32, B = 34, C = 36, ..., Z = 82|
|BILLY THE KID (Henry McCarty's Alias)||A = 22, B = 26, C = 30, ..., Z = 122|
|WILLIAM H. BONNEY (Henry/Billy's Other Alias)||A = 32, B = 34, C = 36, ..., Z = 82|
|JESSE JAMES||A = 57, B = 58, C = 59, ..., Z = 82|
|FRANK JAMES||A = 49, B = 51, C = 53, ..., Z = 99|
|HARRY JAMES||A = 45, B = 47, C = 49, ..., Z = 95|
|MYRA BELLE SHIRLEY ("Belle Starr")||A = 20, B = 22, C = 24, ..., Z = 70|
|ROBERT LEROY PARKER ("Butch Cassidy")||A = 3, B = 6, C = 9, ..., Z = 78|
|THE SUNDANCE KID||A = 21, B = 24, C = 27, ..., Z = 96|
|JOHNNY REB||A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156|
|BILLY YANK (Yes, the same code as "JOHNNY REB")||A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156|
|HISTORY FANATICS||A = 10, B = 13, C = 16, ..., Z = 85|
|BRITS||A = 38, B = 40, C = 42, ..., Z = 88|
|AUSSIES||A = 46, B = 50, C = 54, ..., Z = 146|
|MERKINS||A = 60, B = 63, C = 66, ..., Z = 135|
|BEATNIKS||A = 65, B = 67, C = 68, ..., Z = 115|
|HIPPIES||A = 62, B = 66, C = 69, ..., Z = 138|
|REDNECKS||A = 30, B = 36, C = 42, ..., Z = 180|
|BLUESTOCKINGS||A = 18, B = 21, C = 24, ..., Z = 93|
|HARVARD BRAHMINS||A = 35, B = 36, C = 37, ..., Z = 60|
|OXBRIDGE GRADUATES||A = 20, B = 22, C = 24, ..., Z = 70|
|REFINED PERSONALITIES||A = 13, B = 15, C = 17, ..., Z = 63|
|CRAZY CAT PEOPLE||A = 15, B = 18, C = 21, ..., Z = 90|
|ENGLISH FOX HUNTERS||A = 27, B = 28, C = 29, ..., Z = 52|
|ANIMAL LOVERS||A = 34, B = 36, C = 38, ..., Z = 84|
|CONSERVATIVES||A = 39, B = 40, C = 41, ..., Z = 64|
|LIBERALS||A = 57, B = 60, C = 63, ..., Z = 132|
|ALL SUPER PATRIOTS||A = 3, B = 6, C = 9, ..., Z = 78|
|POLITICIANS||A = 50, B = 51, C = 52, ..., Z = 75|
|PARLIAMENT||A = 27, B = 31, C = 35, ..., Z = 127|
|RUSSIA||A = 84, B = 86, C = 88, ..., Z = 144|
|THE EU (European Union)||A = 90, B = 94, C = 98, ..., Z = 190|
|OPEC||A = 149, B = 151, C = 153, ..., Z = 199|
|THE A BOMB||A = 76, B = 77, C = 78, ..., Z = 101|
|THE H BOMB||A = 67, B = 68, C = 71, ..., Z = 117|
|A HOLLYWOOD BOMB||A = 37, B = 38, C = 39, ..., Z = 62|
|UNIVERSAL PEACE||A = 28, B = 30, C = 32, ..., Z = 78|
|SOCIALISTS||A = 55, B = 56, C = 57, ..., Z = 80|
|COMMUNISTS||A = 53, B = 54, C = 55, ..., Z = 78|
|STALINISTS||A = 27, B = 30, C = 33, ..., Z = 102|
|MARKET PLAYERS||A = 28, B = 30, C = 32, ..., Z = 78|
|ROBBER BARONS||A = 36, B = 38, C = 40, ..., Z = 86|
|BIG BANKS||A = 69, B = 71, C = 73, ..., Z = 119|
|CAPITALISM||A = 48, B = 50, C = 52, ..., Z = 98|
|MONARCHY||A = 61, B = 63, C = 65, ..., Z = 111|
|DEMOCRACY||A = 48, B = 51, C = 54, ..., Z = 123|
|CIA||A = 202 B = 208, C = 214, ..., Z = 352|
|KGB||A = 188 B = 194 C = 200, ..., Z = 338|
|FBI||A = 194 B = 200 C = 206, ..., Z = 344|
|ALL LAWYERS||A = 43, B = 45, C = 47, ..., Z = 93|
|PAPARAZZI||A = 39, B = 42, C = 45, ..., Z = 114|
|"GOTCHA" JOURNALISM||A = 31, B = 32, C = 33, ..., Z = 56|
|MODERN ART||A = 63, B = 64, C = 65, ..., Z = 88|
|REALISTIC ART||A = 35, B = 37, C = 39, ..., Z = 85|
|BALLETS||A = 86, B = 87, C = 88, ..., Z = 111|
|JAZZ||A = 137, B = 139, C = 141, ..., Z = 187|
|ROCK AND ROLL||A = 30, B = 33, C = 36, ..., Z = 105|
|SQUARE DANCING||A = 42, B = 43, C = 44, ..., Z = 67|
|MORRIS DANCES||A = 45, B = 46, C = 47, ..., Z = 70|
|ROCK GROUPS||A = 40, B = 42, C = 44, ..., Z = 90|
|FOLK SINGERS||A = 38, B = 40, C = 42, ..., Z = 88|
|BEATLES||A = 87, B = 88, C = 89, ..., Z = 112|
|ELVIS (No last name needed)||A = 96, B = 99, C = 102, ..., Z = 171|
|AMADAEUS||A = 69, B = 71, C = 73, ..., Z = 119|
|AMADAEUS MOZART||A = 27, B = 29, C = 31, ..., Z = 77|
|BEETHOVEN||A = 45, B = 48, C = 51, ..., Z = 120|
|HANDEL||A = 92, B = 95, C = 98, ..., Z = 167|
|BACH||A = 164, B = 165, C = 166, ..., Z = 189|
|MAHLER||94, B = 96, C = 98, ..., Z = 144|
|WAGNER||A = 80, B = 83, C = 86, ..., Z = 155|
|W. RICHARD WAGNER||A = 18, B = 21, C = 24, ..., Z = 93|
|RICHARD WAGNER THE JERK||A = 24, B = 25, C = 26, ..., Z = 49|
|WOTAN||A = 106, B = 108, C = 110, ..., Z = 156|
|POGNER||A = 88, B = 90, C = 92, ..., Z = 138|
|DER FLEIGENDE HOLLANDER||A = 24, B = 25, C = 26, ..., Z = 49|
|THE FLYING DUTCHMAN||A = 29, B = 30, C = 31, ..., Z = 54|
|LOHENGRIN||A = 43, B = 46, C = 49, ..., Z = 118|
|THE FRIGGING RING CYCLE||A = 23, B = 26, C = 29, ..., Z = 98|
|ALL WAGNER OPERAS||A = 14, B = 17, C = 20, ..., Z = 89|
|BARBERSHOP QUARTETS||A = 18, B = 19, C = 20, ..., Z = 43|
|UNIVERSITY MARCHING BANDS||A = 14, B = 16, C = 18, ..., Z = 64|
|N. Y. PHILHARMONIC||A = 26, B = 28, C = 30, ..., Z = 76|
|N. Y. GIANTS||A = 58, B = 60, C = 62, ..., Z = 108|
|N. Y. METS||A = 96, B = 97, C = 98, ..., Z = 121|
|BASEBALL||A = 66, B = 69, C = 72, ..., Z = 141|
|FOOTBALL||A = 27, B = 33, C = 39, ..., Z = 177|
|HOCKEY||A = 50, B = 56, C = 62, ..., Z = 200|
|NEW YORK CITY||A = 32, B = 34, C = 36, ..., Z = 82|
|HACKENSACK||A = 60, B = 61, C = 62, ..., Z = 85|
|PERTH AMBOY||A = 44, B = 46, C = 47, ..., Z = 94|
|TULSA||A = 106, B = 108, C = 110, ..., Z = 156|
|DENVER||A = 80, B = 83, C = 86, ..., Z = 155|
|THE INTERNET||A = 49, B = 50, C = 51, ..., Z = 74|
|THE CINEMA||A = 51, B = 54, C = 57, ..., Z = 126|
|THE STAGE||A = 64, B = 66, C = 68, ..., Z = 114|
|MUSIC HALL ENTERTAINMENT||A = 9, B = 11, C = 13, ..., Z = 59|
|CABLE TELEVISION||A = 26, B = 28, C = 30, ..., Z = 76|
|TELEVISION WITH THOSE DANG COMMERCIALS||A = 9, B = 10, C = 11, ..., Z = 34|
|TALK SHOW HOSTS||A = 24, B = 26, C = 28, ..., Z = 74|
|DVD'S||A = 144, B = 146, C = 148, ..., Z = 194|
|BVD'S||A = 145, B = 147, C = 149, ..., Z = 195|
|CATS||A = 147, B = 149, C = 151, ..., Z = 197|
|DOGS||A = 146, B = 148, C = 150, ..., Z = 86|
|HORSES||A = 98, B = 99, C = 100, ..., Z = 123|
|HORSE'S TAILS||A = 24, B = 27, C = 30, ..., Z = 99|
|HORSE'S ARTISTS||A = 24, B = 26, C = 28, ..., Z = 74|
|HORSE'S ARSES||A = 36, B = 38, C = 40, ..., Z = 196|
|HEALTH FOOD||A = 33, B = 37, C = 41, ..., Z = 133|
|FAST FOOD||A = 54, B = 57, C = 60, ..., Z = 129|
|FAT FOOD||A = 78, B = 80, C = 82, ..., Z = 128|
|CARNIVORES||A = 21, B = 25, C = 29, ..., Z = 121|
|VEGANS||A = 80, B = 83, C = 86, ..., Z = 155|
|DRINKERS||A = 72, B = 73, C = 74, ..., Z = 97|
|ALL TEETOTALERS||A = 26, B = 28, C = 30 ..., Z = 76|
|SMOKERS||A = 42, B = 46, C = 50, ..., Z = 142|
|SNUFF DIPPERS||A = 32, B = 34, C = 36, ..., Z = 82|
|OTHER TOBACCO USERS||A = 28, B = 29, C = 30, ..., Z = 53|
|NONSMOKERS||A = 40, B = 42, C = 44, ..., Z = 90|
|SMOKING REALLY FINE CIGARS||A = 19, B = 20, C = 21, ..., Z = 44|
|SPIT ON THE END OF YOUR CIGAR||A = 6, B = 8, C = 10, ..., Z = 56|
|SPITTING IN THE STREET||A = 10, B = 12, C = 14, ..., Z = 60|
|SPITTIN', BELCHIN', AND CUSSIN'||A = 8, B = 10, C = 12, ..., Z = 58|
|PITCHIN' WOO||A = 14, B = 18, C = 22, ..., Z = 114|
|PITCHING HAY||A = 11, B = 16, C = 21, ..., Z = 136|
|OUR COLLEGE PROFESSORS||A = 9, B = 11, C = 13, ..., Z = 59|
|BILLY BOB DOWN AT THE FILLING STATION||A = 11, B = 12, C = 13, ..., Z = 36|
|PEOPLE WHO WASTE TIME HUNTING FOR SIX SIX SIX||A = 5, B = 6, C = 7, ..., Z = 30|
|YOUR MAMAS||A = 35, B = 38, C = 41, ..., Z = 110|
A natural response is to pooh-pooh these examples as contrived and that the codes we used to get the more famous assignments "make more sense." Actually that's not true. There are many commonplace names that share the codes that "make more sense".
You want to use the code where A = 100, B = 101, C = 102, ..., Z = 125?
Well, that's easy. In addition to the two (snicker) "gentlemen" shown above, we can pick - and these are all valid US surnames - Butler, Holmes, Graves, Haynes, Tanner, Mobley, Denton, Singer, Rainey, Rosado, Godwin, Duvall, Hooker, Felton, Hauser, Hummel, Ponder, Shanks, Wenger, Sibley, Colley, Wegner, Parisi, Herbst, Tracey, Cromer, Blythe, Herrin, Lerner, Garris, Penrod, Weiler, Tuggle, Lemmon, Palomo, Rivard, Silvia, Monday, Schmit, Penner, Lemley, Riojas, Aubrey, Waring, Jessen, Verdin, Pankey, Lebrun, Teller, Caston, Hatter, Widmer, Alpert, Strack, Bewley, Korman, Juneau, Batton, Warnke, Masten, Nassar, Schley, Bourke, Ugarte, Harvin, Giunta, Reason, Roloff, Weight, Monger, Husain, Joines, Tobler, Wildes, Taplin, Virden, Raskin, Alvord, Kesner, Lepper, Schiro, Shukla, Puffer, Semler, Ankrom, Pawlik, Eppler, Steere, Shimer, Soucie, Marmol, Sheats, Treacy, Vicars, Weyand, Duhart, Kopacz, Burtch, Orloff, Cerezo, Rayman, Fawley, Kirker, Zahner, Dundon, Millay, Scally, Denzer, Piller, Buzard, Sewall, Greely, Starck, Milnes, Kenley, Neyman, Manney, Plater, Cudney, Cottam, Dworak, Sobota, Burgio, Uphoff, Fonner, Arrant, Farooq, Zirbel, Sallis, Alioto, Dorval, Willig, Dostie, Zender, Aymond, Serano, Walmer, Aldous, Treese, Menzie, Payano, Bylsma, Hopple, Cephus, Ridlon, Threat, Shroff, Detter, Fariss, Mourad, Burges, Darsey, Mesler, Carlow, Guinta, Cozine, Mathey, Lovick, Shiels, Borner, Cantos, Kassim, Kinion, Pipher, Dayley, Sekhon, Stauch, Yerian, Sannes, Stanco, Kolker, Forgue, Mifsud, Yescas, Spaugh, Kaluza, Mccort, Sillas, Larkey, Morgen, Furlan, Minish, Hanton, Bilton, Damour, Lindor, Speier, Barkus, Mitsch, Nimmer, Rakers, Preddy, Bolter, Volden, Temkin, Kusiak, Savona, Bazzle, Darius, Webley, Pilant, Plasse, Bumpas, Schaut, Monnig, Saxman, Ciullo, Mclure, Detert, Moreta, Yaklin, Culmer, Ginley, Hoppel, Tappen, Tausch, Broner, Durell, Neeson, Yeakey, Gotsch, Rambow, Cowher, Nicols, Gallus, Walles, Camuso, Maduro, Gopaul, Batrez, Rigoni, Vicens, Matsen, Sheils, Bressi, Talent, Givans, Rudell, Bosket, Goette, Selmer, Bortle, Finzel, Detzel, Lipuma, Signer, Lefton, Hanway, Sladky, Suchil, Oshita, Anthon, Lohner, Gabrys, Nuhfer, Kernes, Uliano, Deuser, Loisel, Montee, Pestka, Munera, Dezern, Radway, Gubser, Rogier, Stepka, Cesarz, Cruger, Daymon, Sollie, Crough, Decoux, Mungle, Hirtle, Jarret, Sarker, Vicino, Moriel, Dervin, Rimbey, Ellert, Kestel, Banzon, Wieler, School, Tacuri, Tokuda, Sorich, Reedus, Petska, Noblit, Weavil, Samper, Pliler, Ciervo, Gavins, Batzer, Bomboy, Errigo, Kissam, Boyken, Gorrie, Loften, Mendyk, Seanor, Vallet, Byczek, Guiler, Lommen, Shayne, Pyland, Stuebe, Cassey, Lueker, Melley, Ockert, Manary, Golino, Slifko, Soifer, Gunsch, Kurgan, Nipple, Roiger, Gowder, Maheux, Nikirk, Newark, Zaczek, Rehrer, Roerig, Durnan, Kurata, Esteva, Ginoza, Moonan, Boltin, Atmore, Sodaro, Forcey, Betzen, Mogren, Timmel, Kennis, Jurick, Strama, Glaros, Mizera, Hevner, Bozell, Cannoy, Farron, Tillar, Wargin, Kayler, Peiser, Konopa, Kulman, Favret, Linner, Doxsee, Peercy, Douget, Hirner, Origer, Anness, Keuler, Mostad, Zombek, Vernal, Bogush, Misher, Selles, Demlow, Latten, Yarman, Canyon, Chunko, Zobell, Matras, Klinko, Pattan, Phanor, Traill, Rhiner, Kozich, Kordes, Locsin, Nollen, Pedron, Yennie, Skarin, Buzick, Darton, Denzin, Roshak, Matero, Cornog, Shiles, Higson, Hommer, Sanyal, Hazlip, Redfox, Dapkus, Eymann, Busing, Oronia, Sudman, Steine, Bitzan, Bortel, Burnap, Luloff, Pecson, Lokker, Windau, Maisey, Arkins, Zilber, Aswell, Hinkey, Molini, Olbert, Timken, Koiner, Filzen, Bovill, Barror, Wilman, Busken, Krivak, Monken, Ausbon, Rosich, Mejeur, Pratap, Sopata, Cuaron, Kauten, Rollan, Waltke, Bhutta, Hoopii, Terell, Toepke, Wanker, Dipert, Pavlat, Coupel, Orphan, Remmer, Dereus, Kaskey, Kilcup, Weiske, Corish, Dowing, Encizo, Jurden, Lessel, Yaddow, Lobert, Lusane, Sulich, Bykerk, Gorshe, Kestle, Tuenge, Houman, Kalson, Koleno, Koshar, Aycoth, Harfst, Kubicz, Polese, Bazzel, Hosken, Shampo, Sloate, Hovind, Yashar, Zhagui, Grines, Sering, Wehmer, Hofert, Criley, Kropff, Gazlay, Pasket, Leppin, Exford, Jordet, Bowmar, Dorrel, Guilds, Jaquin, Mignon, Nellon, Parlet, Zoldan, Hudyma, Ozinga, Schwen, Nizami, Lausen, Noesen, Knezek, Minato, Monita, Colazo, Kontak, Liewer, Mcloon, Sueoka, Wingen, Dolgos, Irgens, Darkow, Mailly, Mongin, Steube, Buhrer, Choute, Mcloyd, Garves, Gorbey, Percey, Poncio, Takats, Bowmen, Pappin, Palter, Pepler, Soleta, Crumel, Drever, Ginnis, Elburn, Naguit, Pauker, Softic, Duteau, Elmers, Felzer, Hermis, Lesnau, Massas, Schoby, Wellik, Westad, Gooler, Ingley, Luiken, Saiter, Stiene, Berron, Denius, Donart, Bummer, Cerwin, Goslar, Harver, Tascon, Zachos, Alliss, Costan, Impink, Vanloh, Brunel, Cosler, Drazin, Sesock, Varges, Karres, Kosoff, Renkes, Shoger, Zakula, Germon, Kenser, Thater, Tocker, Faruqi, Criser, Parnin, Penyak, Pliske, Bugosh, Epplin, Shiota, Truffa, Zewdie, Godzik, Kroman, Rumpca, Sersch, Barrix, Tenhet, Mesloh, Sobilo, Cotone, Karley, Kolnik, Pierse, Bimson, Duller, Fesser, Zaroff, Botler, Glavey, Lenkey, Lubner, Roeker, Steria, Vinces, Engwer, Mauren, Freter, Hansey, Skeith, Denyes, Minugh, Tapler, Akerly, Fiores, Ketels, Melser, Saving, Antimo, Hezlep, Hybner, Lavern, Lenoue, Sidote, Deuley, Gilray, Shaney, Zumach, Fordon, Riebow, Rudock, Schraw, Vespia, Gayten, Weiant, Karins, Knopke, Laroue, Poisal, Gustad, Perdon, Schori, Watari, Dusman, Molavi, Schwar, Pavesi, Baslow, Hautau, Wieske, Yaldoo, Bieszk, Chudyk, Guilin, Hegazy, Ianson, Lazuka, Mallum, Mettam, Slogar, Alspaw, Kauper, Pudvah, Binnix, Karnis, Sharko, Brumme, Erkens, Fekety, Belyew, Boppre, Bruzda, Kiviat, Soenen, Zawila, Cirbus, Sihota, Watman, Cynkar, Dolven, Ertell, Harlor, Nieset, Senker, Smazal, Spudic, Tepsic, Buksar, Hatzel, Selvie, Sophie, Kravik, Lipske, Sandos, Sarkin, Moroch, Ohayre, Parren, Polfer, Scerri, Spamer, Fiorio, Kalush, Mahlow, Sillik, Crumbo, Denyse, Hamlow, Kraley, Bliton, Nassen, Schnug, Touche, Wening, Coduti, Duckro, Fensom, Mallos, Maryan, Mclary, Tesman, Brosco, Denvir, Ferret, Giotta, Poepoe, Stepic, Celsor, Gerbus, Kranis, Layhue, Quelle, Arkley, Domyan, Girndt, Lukash, Mcdown, Mondok, Pintal, Estave, Holtel, Mermer, Gelson, Kerndt, Shauer, Himley, Rosane, Malaty, Noftle, Spatig, Lorico, Shildt, Bigony, Binuya, Judith, Philby, Sipola, Benetz, Fresse, Laroya, Warger, Wilaby, Bouker, Donjon, Homles, Maskew, Siater, Cadzow, Droske, Kresen, Pluard, Reuman, Willke, Deynes, Ersing, Kudzia, Manyen, Shenko, Tarran, Areson, Lukman, Tomera, Arvold, Imbery, Koslan, Mosleh, Reppel, Tartal, Bernor, Colmon, Cundey, Guriel, Julias, Kerens, Maydon, Rihner, Slonka, and Sonera.
What if we want to use the code where A = 6, B = 12, C = 18, ..., Z = 156?
Well, we just point to names like Vasquez, Strickland, Holloway, Blankenship, Mcpherson, Mcdermott, Slaughter, Reynoso, Boudreaux, Whitmore, Bourgeois, Scroggins, Arsenault, Prewitt, Forsyth, Vanwinkle, Mattison, Albritton, Ingersoll, Engstrom, Mortimer, Kissinger, Persinger, Schlueter, Firestone, Newport, Sikorski, Finnerty, Rochester, Mcmurry, Traynor, Bukowski, Schuyler, Massengill, Smithers, Perrault, Polston, Sinnott, Rogerson, Mcmasters, Stults, Nunnery, Santibanez, Pettaway, Visconti, Roessler, Raymundo, Miyamoto, Dahlquist, Brickhouse, Fluharty, Barrientes, Waddington, Jenkinson, Bracamontes, Kitterman, Schroyer, Trosper, Styron, Theroux, Goodenough, Voorhies, Trovato, Morriss, Peplinski, Osowski, Schroeter, Purpura, Springman, Weitzman, Zorrilla, Kirkendoll, Stampley, Passalacqua, Lajeunesse, Hoffmaster, Critchlow, Jespersen, Wormley, Stingley, Inzunza, Snellings, Muzzy, Jovanovic, Weisgerber, Wiginton, Leffingwell, Sharpton, Montanaro, Berquist, Brumbelow, Bowersock, Buttrey, Veneziano, Prevette, Thackston, Victorian, Capriotti, Asmussen, Bartkowiak, Goldstone, Schoenrock, Clugston, Storts, Stricklen, Russum, Vankeuren, Famiglietti, Constante, Victorio, Muratore, Petruska, Boutilier, Vukovich, Santarelli, Guirguis, Borowicz, Schwimmer, Szostak, Stockert, Dunnavant, Butkovich, Loughrey, Stgermaine, Turvey, Vazques, Krasinski, Ernsberger, Stitzel, Kosloski, Strength, Leverton, Torosian, Buttery, Shutter, Fullenkamp, Pesqueira, Hardenbrook, Serviss, Weathersbee, Mourning, Arroyos, Vitullo, Stanwood, Monsanto, Loughery, Voorheis, Vanduzer, Kestenbaum, Wrisley, Fetterly, Vigneault, Mecklenburg, Lastrapes, Wurzer, Winokur, Wesselman, Mcgregory, Seagroves, Maturino, Syracuse, Wagenknecht, Librizzi, Steenson, Sumerlin, Kalkbrenner, Lynskey, Rosenwald, Strollo, Jankiewicz, Astorino, Doberstein, Langowski, Stanphill, Digiuseppe, Peckinpaugh, Bouchillon, Schoenfeldt, Knutzen, Symanski, Weisensel, Mickiewicz, Stolarz, Silvius, Lupinski, Saltmarsh, Twyford, Paluzzi, Purgason, Windholz, Dudenhoeffer, Brensinger, Urquilla, Griesinger, Scioneaux, Weisberger, Vanluven, Stufflebean, Devincenzi, Schreurs, Lipsitz, Niquette, Rekowski, Woodroof, Courchesne, Huettner, Loppnow, Sternhagen, Howdeshell, Neuburger, Phetteplace, Srinivas, Estenson, Finkenbinder, Coverson, Tschantz, Demonbreun, Wohlfarth, Guillette, Ozturk, Frontino, Toutant, Ritthaler, Vanselow, Eversley, Malstrom, Clouthier, Osmanovic, Vanwieren, Norcutt, Shearouse, Swearengen, Pezzino, Stockford, Westerbeck, Westray, Danielewicz, Providence, Lebovitz, Ottaviani, Urquijo, Khamvongsa, Fasthorse, Durrette, Linzmeier, Brooksher, Vissers, Rensberger, Branciforte, Seaquist, Stanovich, Stinton, Lechleitner, Vanbruggen, Krumrey, Seldomridge, Kotzur, Washburne, Sindlinger, Vanfossan, Christos, Castetter, Verdoorn, Westrate, Mooberry, Honsberger, Sollinger, Werlinger, Vandenbroek, Desfosses, Colarossi, Rizzardi, Armington, Kreinbrink, Snitzer, Perretti, Skotnicki, Rautenberg, Endrizzi, Strazza, Abramowicz, Sokolski, Lambertus, Hattendorf, Shellhorn, Cannistraci, Palfreyman, Weinschenk, Mounteer, Santamarina, Schoenemann, Sanclemente, Wormser, Wettengel, Portley, Loporto, Queiroz, Shotton, Mckinniss, Poertner, Gasparovic, Mcclaughry, Prestenbach, Rougeux, Kuperus, Civitarese, Tuominen, Cornellier, Lightburn, Ottenbacher, Zornow, Wszolek, Ziegelbauer, Reitnauer, Vanderhart, Chaturvedi, Portmann, Willburn, Featherson, Michalczyk, Radzinski, Sarsour, Stagnitta, Marinelarena, Harkenrider, Spiekerman, Ortigoza, Kingsmore, Josephsen, Rodenberger, Weisbrot, Hristov, Lukomski, Schulist, Cornutt, Kroninger, Trumbly, Ferritto, Schoenbauer, Hildenbrandt, Womeldorf, Opalewski, Palestino, Estopinal, Stubblebine, Fabrizius, Reinartz, Wennerberg, Dearstyne, Genwright, Drollette, Kryszak, Redepenning, Wachowicz, Muehleisen, Maryanski, Munnings, Bockhorst, Pendexter, Rollenhagen, Feyereisen, Schurmann, Truehart, Okelberry, Kleinheksel, Suszko, Diguiseppe, Gittemeier, Gospodarek, Konzelman, Sinisgalli, Hajovsky, Tizzano, Woleslagle, Malsbury, Vandentop, Connerley, Stoneroad, Minthorn, Covarubias, Zirpolo, Beauparlant, Peddycoart, Zaiontz, Hilterbrand, Duperron, Leveritt, Simoncelli, Braunberger, Forthofer, Mewbourn, Milleville, Wielinski, Izarraras, Primous, Trumper, Blankemeyer, Gilbertsen, Hurlocker, Matayoshi, Matossian, Suiters, Wyngarden, Kennicott, Cannington, Quintano, Ficarrotta, Pickenpaugh, Durston, Grittner, Pallotto, Purkett, Safstrom, Claybourn, Dorismond, Tarrants, Getzinger, Muscott, Bissessar, Panhorst, Polycarpe, Ritcheson, Fischesser, Lovelett, Marcozzi, Pitonyak, Porrello, Greenamyer, Rothmeier, Bolstridge, Helquist, Kostreva, Gerstung, Soldevilla, Zarrillo, Chipperfield, Perritte, Rolewicz, Victores, Campolongo, Dutterer, Buzinski, Lenfestey, Newmiller, Steenburg, Brinston, Guanajuato, Dowhower, Mansukhani, Schwarten, Sickmiller, Swepson, Borofsky, Gloudemans, Guttridge, Kamyszek, Struggs, Kinsfather, Liverett, Dimitrova, Kimmerling, Shellnut, Simmions, Swayngim, Vanderbosch, Eisenbrandt, Napoliello, Estrellado, Yagudayev, Piersanti, Srygley, Vanorsdale, Garciareyes, Smithley, Zahirovic, Bourdeaux, Chandrasekhar, Pignatello, Statkus, Jenkerson, Schenewerk, Villamarin, Dovenbarger, Goodwillie, Gotreaux, Silveyra, Fosnaught, Stalkfleet, Buckenberger, Demorrow, Landschoot, Lewitzke, Dumornay, Hinthorne, Mccullouch, Rochlitz, Sutkus, Wohlfahrt, Koppinger, Pilipovic, Shoykhet, Gundermann, Kapustin, Requenez, Zumsteg, Chesebrough, Martinucci, Verrillo, Zargaryan, Honeycut, Surginer, Zaehringer, Delprincipe, Lacquement, Potochnik, Dittbenner, Hockenberger, Ozzello, Smirnova, Kroshus, Letzring, Neuerburg, Nizinski, Vasilescu, Demercurio, Tornello, Vandermyde, Stoveken, Taborsky, Belousov, Volinski, Kueppers, Leitermann, Lewinson, Mustion, Rospert, Kanwischer, Potluri, Mizoguchi, Wonacott, Wynings, Sczesny, Civitillo, Reyesgarcia, Wonderlich, Breuklander, Cuddington, Mcelhatton, Ottersbach, Quartaro, Senquiz, Weisblatt, Wormely, Plumstead, Tuminaro, Zanotto, Vanemmerik, Kowalczik, Oravitz, Previlon, Veldhouse, Niswender, Burtlow, Gosselink, Ironcloud, Storandt, Stresing, Almstrom, Eichenstein, Quivers, Suffredini, Thingvold, Krakosky, Listerman, Treston, Ritterbeck, Tuccitto, Cerrillos, Cutforth, Paluszek, Schultis, Vanooyen, Ronstadt, Whysong, Schmautz, Quarrels, Trivers, Sterzer, Westney, Woltkamp, Koolstra, Pizzaro, Surguy, Writesel, Yussuf, Berndtson, Smithling, Troescher, Kloostra, Macgilvray, Villazon, Durazzo, Trantow, Zamperini, Ostovich, Scanzillo, Studdert, Tomassian, Urbansky, Venezuela, Budworth, Capizzano, Klinghoffer, Shewalter, Thorsland, Mcskimming, Haggenmiller, Houghtalen, Karabetsos, Gumprecht, Littlebird, Miskelley, Pierquet, Polonski, Quihuiz, Runnalls, Stansifer, Wishnow, Yarlott, Fahrenthold, Maikowski, Waldburger, Hurtarte, Lauritano, Markovics, Takvorian, Threatts, Detiveaux, Chroninger, Dubitsky, Leciejewski, Poortenga, Spannbauer, Tacoronte, Lannutti, Mitrisin, Petrochko, Roushey, Cerritelli, Kalchbrenner, Seidenberger, Steinsiek, Wartchow, Desourdy, Gerstmann, Stulpin, Thogersen, Depoister, Niewohner, Ollerton, Roughley, Tatalovich, Tymeson, Villaronga, Hackenmiller, Berenstein, Hestilow, Pinamonti, Faussett, Gallington, Matsunami, Questell, Torczon, Csencsits, Ellifritt, Monsalvo, Mossett, Quinette, Shippert, Starkebaum, Zuspann, Annuzzi, Klemmensen, Roginson, Altfillisch, Converso, Favuzzi, Inguaggiato, Lichtenwald, Vannatten, Venskus, Bythrow, Carpenetti, Enzminger, Kipfmiller, Lobozzo, Lomerson, Scarpetti, Giovagnoli, Olitsky, Posusta, Rositano, Smiecinski, Esperson, Paslawski, Shigemoto, Similton, Tetmeyer, Kranenburg, Phomsopha, Chandrashekar, Embertson, Sisselman, Spexarth, Tronstad, Whetzell, Delashmitt, Freudenrich, Ifkovits, Quatrone, Schripsema, Cuttrell, Rigterink, Shortland, Vinkemeier, Hoverter, Ladmirault, Mortorff, Schlattman, Broumley, Burnsides, Citriniti, Lazauskas, Millermon, Montelbano, Neitzelt, Stuewer, Hilderbrant, Keshavarz, Bartiromo, Cuvillier, Greisinger, Muzzall, Ostensen, Ruschmann, Schaumleffel, Soullier, Torngren, Vanemburgh, Zimbalist, Armanious, Branstner, Cerventes, Helmueller, Polishuk, Possley, Tingelstad, Elsensohn, Karunakaran, Kinzalow, Mcswiney, Moscardelli, Pennybaker, Stiglets, Claramitaro, Clerveaux, Pietrandrea, Staszko, Astillero, Fuschetti, Gochenouer, Harworth, Kraisinger, Lagerstedt, Lingenfelder, Shamansky, Vonkampen, Wadewitz, Finnessy, Lepoidevin, Middlestadt, Montaluo, Potosnak, Puzycki, Quainton, Schleuter, Tolotti, Buckholts, Causgrove, Droppers, Erfourth, Laustsen, Patrissi, Schaffhausen, Trusdell, Vlasyuk, Braithwait, Calderazzo, Northfield, Rozental, Vanderkelen, Voeltner, Besendorfer, Embretson, Guttry, Hartgerink, Kinowski, Koffarnus, Oravsky, Radkowski, Samaritano, Tatasciore, Vetterli, Bitterly, Chirichiello, Fashingbauer, Ramondetta, Steinbecker, Vanotten, Grigorov, Juratovac, Lulewicz, Lusebrink, Magsaysay, Meluskey, Sawczyn, Vanarsdalen, Vizueth, and Wedington.
Remember that these are only US surnames. There are many other names throughout history and the world that will work.
Now what just is it that determines whether a name can be coded to 666 or that multiple names can share the same code? Well, the technical reason is that the sum of the alphabetic locations and the number of letters in the names that code to 666 arise from random distributions. Then a certain random sampling of those names will code to 666.
In other words, it's just pure luck.
What? You mean to say if a name codes to 666, it's just like rolling a pair dice or getting a particular hand of poker? That seems kind of hard to to believe.
Yep. And that, too, is easy to show.
Remember we said that people who are - quote - "finding the code" - unquote - are really parametarizing the equation.
To show the random nature of the solutions, we must find the distribution - not for the parameters - but for the variables, that is, Σb(i) and n. What the distributions will do is show us the number of the variables that share common values, and hence work with common codings.
Distributions are best shown by the type of graphs called histograms. To make a histogram, we take the values of the variables and plot them against the frequency with which the value occurs.
What we see is veeeeerrrryyyyyy interesting, as Arte Johnson would have said. Both variables, Σb(i) and n, look very much like normal Gaussian distributions, ergo, the famous "bell shaped curves". The curves are, in fact, Poisson distributions and are indeed distributions that arise out of random events. So the fact you can code a name to 666 is in turn an entirely random event.
(Click on the images to see a larger graph.)
There are two things about the first histogram we should note as it explains the paradox of the apparent difficulty of finding a code for a name and that there is a code for virtually all names.
First for Σb(i) the maximum percentage on the vertical axis is only a little more than 2 %. Therefore the histogram has a broad and low distribution. This means that any particular code will work for a relatively few names. So in the days before computers, people would stumble onto a code that worked with a name, but not with any others they tested. This gave the impression they were finding a code that only applied to one specific individual. But what they were actually doing was just finding one of a large number of low probability occurrences.
Next, the histogram for the final coded names is extremely narrow. The shape of this distribution - including the slight skew to the left - is discussed more in the Appendix. But the net is that more than 99 % of the names code within the range from 664 to 668. So even though finding a specific code for an individual is tough without a computer, we can - as we saw above - code almost all names to 666 if we look long enough.
But as far as many names sharing a common code, there's nothing we can do about it. After all, there is no cure for the common code.
(Note: You can also read more about why some names share common codes in the Appendix.)
We grant that many names can be coded to 666. But couldn't someone use one of these codes - or some other - to keep the identity of someone secret and known only for a select group?
Yes, indeed. But we emphasize to keep the identity secret. Given the high probability that any randomly selected name yields 666, it is not possible to tell if the code is prearranged simply because the name adds up. The odds are high that you would have other names sharing the same code as the one you devised.
Or look at it in this way. That the biblical reference is a coded reference to an individual is probably the correct interpretation. But the person could only be reliably identified if the key to the code was clearly specified and circulated among the recipients. Otherwise even if someone did hit on the code - as may very well have happened with the assignment to Nero - it is impossible to know if you've really cracked the code or if you just hit one of the many random alternatives. In essence, any name that someone deliberately coded will be indistinguishable from a name that codes simply by random chance.
For those who still opt for the prophetic interpretation, the author of CooperToons would fain take the uppance to gainsay the many. But you do have to scratch your head about a Supreme Being that would send a stern warning to future generations using a code that is impossible to decipher and can apply to anyone. Or maybe it just means He has a sense of humor after all and likes to raise a ruckus as He promised in Luke 12:15. Certainly history has shown that attempts to crack the code have done little other than to degenerate what should be sound theological studies into petty spittle flinging political diatribes.
But in any case, caveat doctor! The author is a strong believer in academic freedom. But he does think teachers of biblical studies should be careful how they teach the prophetic interpretation while neglecting the historic alternative. Certainly discovering that multiple names adding to 666 can be problematic amongst the young and impressionable. There was a posting on the Fount of All Knowledge - ergo, the Internet - which related how a professor at a Bible college - quote - "proved" - unquote - how the verse - quote - "predicted" - unquote - a particular individual was the Anti-Christ. Unfortunately, one of the students found his own name also added to 666 and concluded what he was being taught was, if not complete דרעק (this is, after all, a family values website), then at least total נארישׁקייט. He dropped out of the college and abandoned his religion.
The system of coding we used here is by no means the only one people use. What are called trivial solutions crop up in the quest to prove that people who don't share certain personal philosophies, beliefs, or politics are the most evil in the world.
Here's one such coding with some popularity. Take the name and assign the first letter the value of 1, the second the value 2, and keep on until the end of the name. If you do that, some people gleefully point out, then the name "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints" sums to 666. Of course, with this coding any phrase that has 36 letters will yield the sum. For instance, the phrase "People who search for six hundred sixty-six" also adds to 666.
Now there's just one more thing we have to do. A lot of people scoff at statistics. They prefer definitive and absolute proof with the certainty of mathematics. So now with mathematical rigor - not just probabilistic arguments - we will show there are far better things to do than trying to prove the Bible says that God wouldn't vote for your least favorite politician.
This we will do by engaging in a bit of theology. That is we will combine our scriptural reference with rigorous and proper reasoning. The method we will use is one recognized by famous Christian writers like C. S. Lewis, Albert Schweitzer, Soren Kierkegaard, and especially, by St. Thomas Anselm in his famous Ontological Argument for the existence of God. More specifically we will use proof by contradiction or in the more informal patois, an indirect proof.
Given the fact that we have shown virtually every name can be easily coded to 666, we are left with the idea that at the bare minimum, an individual whose name can be coded is at least a candidate to be the subject of Revelation 13:18. This statement is the one fundamental assumption we need to keep with the prophetic interpretation. Fortunately, the indirect proof is a way to test such fundamentals.
But what if we can find a code that produces 666 for one individual who - and pardon us if we shout - CANNOT IN ANY WAY BE THE INTENDED INDIVIDUAL OF REVELATION 13:18? If we can, then our fundamental assumption must be wrong. In other words just being able to code a name to 666 - and again pardon our shouting - DOES NOT AND CANNOT IDENTIFY THE INDIVIDUAL OF REVELATION 13:18. Ergo, what we have been doing is indeed a bunch of bullshine, etc., etc.
First we have to pick a code. And we'll pick a code with a strong theological rationale.
For instance, what number do we get if we symbolically remove the Holy Spirit from the first Christian congregation? That is, take the number twelve (the Disciples) and subtract three (the Trinity). So we end up with what seems to be a theologically sound number of 12 - 3 = 9.
Okay, start up with A = 9, B = 18, C = 27, ... , Z = 234 and see where we can go.
But before moving to the argumentum crucis, we'll give an extra example using this code.
In what is sometimes mistakenly called "Western" Civilization (the ancient Greeks, for instance, were strongly tied into early Middle Eastern culture) has developed an increasing angst directed toward Islam. So it's not surprising that on the Fount of All Knowledge you can read about a "new" (but actually quite old) code to derive 666 from what what has become an increasingly important creed. Of course, you have to stick with the English alphabet (it doesn't work in Arabic) and then choose only one of the many variant transliterations. Then yes, using the code A = 9, B = 18, C = 27, ... , Z = 234, you can find a link with 666.
|M||=||13 × 9||=||117|
|U||=||21 × 9||=||189|
|H||=||8 × 9||=||72|
|A||=||1 × 9||=||9|
|M||=||13 × 9||=||117|
|M||=||13 × 9||=||117|
|A||=||1 × 9||=||9|
|D||=||4 × 9||=||36|
All right. With no further ado and coding as we did for the name "Muhammad" - that is, A = 9, B = 18, C = 27, ... , Z = 234 - we will now apply the code to the one and only name that cannot in anyway be the subject of Revelation 13:18.
|J||=||10 × 9||=||90|
|E||=||5 × 9||=||45|
|S||=||19 × 9||=||171|
|U||=||21 × 9||=||189|
|S||=||19 × 9||=||171|
So what does this mean? Well, since Christ can't be the anti-Christ, and you can still code His name to 666, we have proven with mathematical certainty that even if you find a way to code someone's name to 666, that means absolutely nothing whatsoever whether that person is the individual of Revelation 13:18.
But if you still have nagging doubts of the veracity of such proofs, you can read about methods of proper reasoning in any of the many books - those increasingly rare non-electronic devices with white flappy things in the middle - on elementary logic. But if that's too much trouble, then as an American president once said, "Trust me."
Finally, some people may think that what all this means is we need to find a code that works with only a few names. That will help us weed out the spurious names. And if a code works with only one name, well, then that, they say, will be the real identity of the Big Baddie.
But as we pointed out, the normal distribution (actually Poisson) of the sum of the names means that some codes will by chance alone work for only a few names. In fact, take the code A = 36, B = 37, C = 38, ... , Z = 61. Out of all 151,671 surnames, only one coded to 666.
And that was "Sierzputowski" - a very unlikely subject for the individual of Revelation 13:18!
Well, at this point little more needs to be said. True, lots of people have trouble accepting indirect proofs as much as they do accepting statistics. But a demonstration like this really does show that our fundamental assumption was indeed bullshine, claptrap, and horsehockey. And it does so just as conclusively - actually more conclusively - than our earlier and much longer demonstration with computers, statistics, and histograms.
The curious, by the way, might wonder just how many extra names work with this code. That is A = 9, B = 18, C = 27, ... Z = 234?
Believe it or not, even sticking just with surnames, we have more choices than ever before (and we should mention both the names Muhammad and Jesus are listed as bonafide American surnames in the US census). We simply call on our friends Lopez, Edwards, Ruiz, Burns, Weaver, Fuller, Alvarado, Reeves, Cross, Solis, Collier, Conley, Atkins, Harrell, Wiley, Zamora, English, Calhoun, Landry, Vaughan, Lucero, Nieves, Kenney, Helton, Edmonds, Buckner, Whaley, Aguilera, Kruse, Koehler, Sheffield, Hyatt, Shearer, Pinto, Feliciano, Currie, Hawley, Arevalo, Maguire, London, Ruffin, Fenton, Jolly, Weiner, Oswald, Muhammad, Lombardi, Renner, Salmon, Barkley, Lytle, Myles, Wylie, Negrete, Causey, Bruns, Parent, Lennon, Hubert, Mauldin, Easton, Penny, Kunkel, Carreon, Taggart, Seaton, Wilks, Welker, Heinrich, Pannell, Griffis, Coggins, Frazer, Larios, Merino, Romine, Stidham, Pichardo, Desmond, Mosby, Crites, Olmos, Hughey, Byron, Snook, Fredrick, Hetrick, Holiday, Ingalls, Atchley, Arriola, Guerin, Marley, Maupin, Pelayo, Petro, Fitts, Jaynes, Hilbert, Kellum, Koons, Melchor, Larry, Maxfield, Hendry, Salley, Reavis, Callender, Wiener, Davalos, Wrenn, Veliz, Mickens, Mcgough, Tatro, Gillum, Galbreath, Elwood, Bergmann, Steger, Medellin, Boggess, Thrash, Mccaslin, Kunkle, Bonnell, Rolon, Carreno, Feaster, Marsden, Pelkey, Pisano, Cathcart, Macfarlane, Holst, Reiser, Timms, Lasley, Otten, Villar, Witham, Scudder, Halpern, Kugler, Bowker, Armitage, Emmert, Winkle, Elizalde, Josey, Fetter, Krull, Wiser, Corrado, Ricciardi, Stuck, Borst, Knuth, Breton, Werth, Roemer, Seabolt, Hirst, Alleyne, Morman, Altieri, Oboyle, Falconer, Matus, Lundin, Mower, Lamothe, Wilken, Starke, Bilyeu, Maitland, Drown, Dhillon, Tasker, Cardillo, Revell, Shearin, Caylor, Benites, Ospina, Wickman, Joshua, Deatherage, Couto, Hosier, Yeary, Hanshaw, Axtell, Ranieri, Ocallaghan, Novick, Lamson, Cartier, Tomko, Millman, Marciano, Winkel, Nordin, Loewen, Mcnary, Yuhas, Galasso, Donlon, Rundle, Motz, Layfield, Sebring, Markland, Siders, Hilty, Anchondo, Kleiner, Blomberg, Rutan, Parkman, Colonna, Kuebler, Norby, Millis, Sailor, Duclos, Flippo, Cosner, Drennen, Charest, Dingus, Capasso, Erhardt, Gowdy, Jury, Conboy, 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Majette, Keizer, Dieckmann, Copus, Sheffey, Orengo, Oregon, Wemple, Holten, Lindler, Maudlin, Melody, Zelenak, Campanile, Brazeau, Kotecki, Bittick, Monier, Meshell, Foisy, Mcclenahan, Letner, Marling, Axton, Sucher, Colello, Elzinga, Sliker, Kenning, Rengifo, Penaranda, Strege, Proehl, Jarnigan, Whichard, Sarles, Medearis, Shadley, Durland, Migues, Copelin, Okoro, Detty, Pacetti, Keltz, Insalaco, Delagrange, Spangle, Landess, Fruit, Razon, Rueger, Scarcella, Heaberlin, Seidner, Volpi, Baswell, Paules, Valent, Porte, Susan, Coriell, Cabanillas, Malicoat, Bremmer, Berrigan, Engelhard, Koskela, Kouri, Elison, Prats, Stanich, Buerkle, Crumble, Inabinet, Nierman, Andazola, Sowle, Sammis, Annett, Podolak, Bushaw, Streff, Meetze, Pergola, Anderberg, Melito, Holts, Modglin, Leconte, Carnero, Lasser, Reckner, Sedwick, Ramiro, Terral, Ingoglia, Khurana, Kildow, Millien, Charlier, Leadingham, Soucek, Kempfer, Hargus, Borski, Halteman, Florin, Bisset, Baringer, Fiallos, Minkoff, Lamphear, 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Pellecchia, Seegars, Mezger, Spevak, Dehnert, Matassa, Morine, Deprez, Lynds, Mumby, Compeau, Leifheit, Balingit, Geerts, Rozo, Whaling, Avolio, Nauss, Gubbins, Robart, Shammas, Staheli, Vondra, Aminov, Cordone, Falzon, Beninati, Benskin, Harlacher, Hedgepath, Melikian, Urieta, Keigley, Dufford, Houchen, Bultema, Carvey, Canonico, Pompei, Mancinas, Fallert, Bhullar, Likely, Benthall, Minelli, Pezza, Wires, Grulke, Kartes, Minion, Hagglund, Homrich, Sudano, Wascom, Rickenbach, Magowan, Gambrill, Hibshman, Licausi, Otremba, Pizer, Salser, Hainley, Swire, Henkels, Rimando, Waidelich, Berrocal, Ponti, Furno, Chavolla, Notte, Tinnel, Tasso, Torbeck, Entler, Kingbird, Beaumier, Wenberg, Bisono, Placzek, Siddens, Tosado, Dusing, Bingley, Duffner, Ferraz, Florer, Doetsch, Remaly, Almeter, Broski, Ogarro, Casalino, Norder, Boehning, Aurora, Florance, Flygare, Reposa, Gowell, Herford, Mirkin, Polland, Swarm, Herridge, Depaulo, Dobkins, Guerard, Schork, Grassia, Morandi, Pobanz, Flenner, Burdell, Cuddihy, Ramser, Belitz, Akkerman, Zbinden, Aksamit, Deupree, Paolella, Meleski, Nanninga, Skroch, Berganza, Shoberg, Sianez, Rout, Steeber, Denenberg, Morash, Perkes, Preheim, Schedler, Sandles, Aument, Mandley, Deschler, Matura, Narlock, Semmes, Duchow, Fasbender, Iovine, Nessel, Pociask, Gornik, Kisler, Nazaire, Steidle, Grandjean, Hupfer, Lantagne, Mikulec, Slayback, Tindol, Podoll, Zoucha, Cleeton, Raquel, Carkhuff, Verno, Conser, Larowe, Pereyda, Leavelle, Lints, Rennard, Lerose, Scordo, Tidrick, Maresco, Pitti, Plagens, Wurl, Delacueva, Alderink, Allton, Criste, Doepker, Hesley, Canzano, Chisler, Roesel, Lefebure, Gomoll, Kowall, Luneau, Turo, Windes, Yeazel, Estella, Yoos, Leichner, Nuanes, Wietecha, Engholm, Rusek, Czachor, Damrow, Korey, Sigur, Hoshaw, Lizza, Nerren, Shoals, Fixler, Cubillo, Polcari, Salling, Shines, Throm, Bernhagen, Kesten, Walloch, Dellarocca, Kerbow, Perches, Cloney, Lehnhoff, Huver, Starek, Gruis, Sampaio, Murali, Plute, Clouden, Suljic, Lunder, Mainord, Laudicina, Preacher, Seabron, Laymance, Ulrick, Frehner, Kazmer, Pardun, Kasdorf, Scharber, Suite, Bryon, Domanico, Pollen, Gialanella, Gruman, Levant, Tokash, Vignali, Andreini, Onuoha, Rokita, Engwall, Hephner, Rassel, Welding, Blyler, Hornbeak, Ferrence, Hemsath, Kuser, Macalpine, Gurman, Busbey, Hamiter, Platania, Bramante, Valleau, Vandeman, Bollenbach, Decardenas, Kuruc, Helsing, Kajiwara, Philon, Domres, Granum, Juhlin, Botner, Killey, Krajnik, Quercia, Zierke, Ferenz, Sirman, Ruffer, Steidel, Burkham, Colyar, Hotze, Nosko, Tolmie, Andaverde, Lycans, Fiechter, Mckennie, Tweedle, Claydon, Mattas, Mcfeeley, Burdon, Coppes, Foshay, Guinard, Coalter, Mammone, Werman, Hopler, Crispi, Mesner, Mozena, Davolt, Galloza, Hruza, Akright, Curole, Claycamp, Dansky, Flusche, Nordick, Bernheim, Dimery, Hellner, Mandoza, Raitz, Steady, Zeagler, Belous, Oleksak, Capponi, Hotop, Margheim, Nibarger, Demerath, Fortna, Landmark, Borts, Diersen, Goeglein, Kauppi, Araguz, Barberis, Larter, Tambasco, Zamacona, Canuto, Hoerth, Mansir, Rennhack, Slavich, Yanos, Mcnight, Goldfield, Gutz, Mileto, Brenneke, Chiulli, Mesnard, Blouse, Helfert, Murgo, Rotta, Ordner, Slowe, Thakker, Hellems, Hiniker, Pohler, Stigen, Kunis, Shamblen, Sinicki, Corelli, Dillner, Gesford, Leffelman, Varns, Zellar, Argenti, Jarzabek, Nepper, Nicanor, Palmberg, Rockoff, Sidley, Nylin, Olascoaga, Stancel, Trimbach, Gentis, Griffth, Mccalmon, Meggers, Piening, Schray, Bossen, Mcconachie, Andriola, Fragoza, Catlow, Robyn, Maltman, Carnagey, Hernades, Hoerauf, Pliner, Swaffar, Bohnhoff, Boudrie, Cornes, Krahmer, Maragos, Amyot, Soracco, Gurecki, Loffler, Morein, Maitlen, Shingle, Bothell, Dalcour, Decosmo, Groos, Haagensen, Aroyo, Mcgurl, Desmidt, Fornof, Graeter, Kilmon, Loller, Franchina, Howman, Mellberg, Perlick, Bowhay, Heidtman, Subasic, Boodhoo, Butland, Denardis, Heavens, Hollrah, Kallsen, Prante, Ambrus, Clinebell, Hovell, Lautt, Rambus, Shugar, Toten, Adamsky, Carraro, Hunnel, Jaquet, Bergener, Boness, Opry, Truan, Glapion, Kneedler, Ulven, Yambor, Galetti, Wilger, Fujihara, Kiskaden, Helferich, Laurila, Mezey, Chhoeun, Cirello, Kresta, Leitman, Lipnick, Cowdell, Herry, Kanouff, Karlberg, Karpman, Nachtman, Naugher, Gerbers, Grimball, Mominee, Ricarte, Rupar, Zumbach, Feldbauer, Nishio, Fabricant, Feuling, Hemmesch, Moxham, Rubsam, Veneman, Gomolka, Kraning, Lallemand, Laudato, Reischl, Scamardo, Strabala, Bufalini, Preval, Vukich, Lessen, Reinman, Jansing, Tomcho, Minardo, Osuji, Raimond, Ghiloni, Giltz, Pancheri, Sageser, Sronce, Stieben, Corino, Nipps, Soeun, Willem, Budziak, Cassini, Erwine, Jarosch, Landsaw, Perun, Preto, Granite, Gritt, Hunold, Rundel, Schofer, Wagschal, Collini, Juengel, Blondeau, Disanza, Lecour, Malouff, Barrigar, Fulps, Buynak, Hackshaw, Highers, Vardell, Bolesta, Gallmon, Mckewen, Rammell, Cribley, Kuglin, Petix, Burdock, Frelix, Janway, Lisker, Pennacchia, Haraburda, Krysa, Mangru, Penuela, Reinicke, Seecharan, Tenhagen, Tuhy, Brodhagen, Driesen, Heddinger, Hitner, Irrgang, Rieley, Auteri, Leisgang, Lyddon, Siefkes, Vopat, Cerillo, Civils, Javaheri, Meiller, Uribes, Boorse, Jerrick, Lipner, Minnear, Sambuco, Claiborn, Fongemie, Heimbaugh, Hoffnagle, Sanicola, Shopp, Sichler, Bernot, Bitzel, Dettlaff, Harvy, Prast, Stimage, Tulli, Schomp, Abramski, Cushard, Latawiec, Pandorf, Schoell, Beppler, Gilmor, Pulte, Schleder, Linski, Ranaudo, Sensel, Macgeorge, Mazone, Sous, Stading, Directo, Gniewek, Belenky, Fitten, Floridia, Guerre, Mcquagge, Pantin, Ppool, Antolak, Defouw, Degrote, Demetri, Eichelberg, Heinsen, Janzer, Kusick, Lucore, Navales, Bonter, Ghorbani, Hendzel, Tegarden, Womick, Cutchen, Godson, Himelfarb, Jarett, Kearny, Kitajima, Zehler, Batarseh, Carros, Loehrke, Mithani, Puppe, Esponda, Hyduke, Maratta, Oldridge, Poter, Sanudo, Schaming, Wiborg, Baronian, Domineck, Langhals, Lovdahl, Mascardo, Dubrock, Duthu, Horns, Kannapel, Tenant, Kleekamp, Sierer, Biscocho, Hoerman, Layhew, Mickow, Tumas, Woodel, Castaing, Nobert, Shahbazi, Fanslau, Mohsen, Rucobo, Sampy, Bickings, Bolvin, Horneck, Infanger, Lazarek, Palmier, Waidner, Itzen, Kolmer, Rerucha, Seslar, Tsuei, Mcewing, Oldford, Paulina, Pushee, Tolve, Besonen, Ghanayem, Hoecherl, Malgieri, Thyng, Wylam, Hoolahan, Krosch, Logelin, Nietz, Oroz, Sincock, Bausher, Frump, Lelonek, Masching, Neidecker, Sandaval, Waraksa, Yorek, Hobkirk, Robisch, Senyk, Theut, Vanner, Guirand, Mcferon, Pellon, Pinske, Edwins, Knoblich, Lenert, Maknojia, Branski, Crosen, Disomma, Fourie, Lukey, Buerman, Landford, Parcels, Forgash, Gatenby, Klueber, Measles, Tirri, Drobot, Laviano, Moraza, Polacheck, Franzi, Gordey, Lennex, Ramagos, Rubiera, Sanfelice, Saraiya, Grason, Piwko, Powanda, Walzak, Feikert, Junell, Kinast, Ligenza, Veller, Endries, Jorges, Kiefert, Lovall, Poret, Seffens, Wilday, Francini, Godsell, Telly, Camardelle, Goodro, Mcclearen, Trish, Eastlake, Ferioli, Kisto, Lemahieu, Levigne, Moerer, Tator, Camphor, Engelland, Hardamon, Mahomes, Savicki, Schammel, Sorbara, Barkins, Haboush, Hilleman, Liniger, Vereecke, Antonia, Botnick, Cattano, Dyett, Hermano, Kately, Kopicki, Odabashian, Sarfati, Shenkel, Shibles, Vetri, Vukas, Coslet, Gilfoy, Masanz, Milus, Nover, Zaller, Anziani, Clampit, Draughan, Filteau, Kerkhof, Mccreesh, Mentele, Salins, Bomstad, Bulsara, Fucito, Huyghe, Ohliger, Sinacola, Audrey, Dechavez, Kroeber, Kumfer, Ohlund, Quanbeck, Sakry, Uehlein, Gysin, Kilfoil, Komosa, Standke, Beckering, Dekarske, Deyerle, Gorgol, Aramayo, Elmgren, Feichter, Gimbert, Hickert, Holper, Bersano, Disser, Eyraud, Mincieli, Bessell, Doehling, Dueweke, Frette, Huzar, Mcgugin, Neelands, Toschi, Diestel, Hanslik, Martial, Yarlagadda, Kizis, Klepacz, Kolles, Kwast, Piccinich, Rancifer, Stampe, Sweder, Wardman, Hagelgans, Kwarta, Brucken, Nelmark, Rauso, Schure, Weicker, Cholakian, Decamillo, Hoelker, Kamiyama, Kilander, Loeung, Rodems, Boatfield, Deprince, Dufficy, Frazin, Hilfiger, Klewin, Lischer, Murua, Ponath, Weierbach, Caminos, Czirr, Darthard, Flaitz, Kennady, Lacognata, Lamfers, Loraine, Nyhoff, Risman, Stanik, Wayte, Vanhees, Verbanic, Washick, Casuccio, Puchalla, Brengman, Denuccio, Mengler, Rokey, Rownd, Santas, Aylmer, Boxill, Castlen, Maskey, Passen, Reppen, Sott, Swedin, Wewer, Yusi, Cawthra, Kehrberg, Rukes, Sobrado, Soldani, Stemle, Tiedtke, Dyroff, Hagebusch, Inloes, Kimbril, Mokler, Shenkle, Arietta, Denhardt, Johnican, Lagrou, Matchell, Medicus, Nealley, Nonez, Phelix, Amengual, Chizmadia, Forler, Friesel, Goberdhan, Salander, Sislo, Alsharif, Erenberg, Gyori, Hoppen, Mcgillem, Messiah, Piton, Sariego, Schraml, Bouchet, Delasalas, Galatro, Krisel, Loneman, Siapno, Varro, Astone, Dulmes, Emineth, Hennies, Hirdler, Riccobene, Schmoke, Boules, Brusie, Minore, Parkis, Sanwald, Seinfeld, Sulham, Tudon, Vashaw, Baugess, Chatley, Gilfus, Aichinger, Audiffred, Berkow, Condino, Escueta, Haislet, Lirot, Oberding, Oshier, Sarreal, Schirle, Cirimele, Nooks, Perske, Barshay, Brindza, Ferbert, Lansman, Ledkins, Toper, Belott, Benchley, Ghirardi, Megason, Pavlin, Pierz, Solman, Grandey, Hexamer, Sariol, Tewelde, Yubeta, Jernegan, Lukken, Ondrick, Psaras, Tost, Conrads, Covone, Ditusa, Hatty, Aberson, Bindewald, Borisch, Borkman, Bruenn, Defisher, Gulker, Hillaire, Korger, Posse, Pronk, Quong, Sintic, Suvak, Ballines, Cavallin, Collelo, Faulker, Morsi, Novin, Randisi, Dizmang, Dolter, Forant, Musta, Berenger, Cameros, Cannuli, Clingaman, Darmanin, Dragoon, Miros, Rissi, Saggus, Sbardella, Schweig, Wandrie, Bannert, Creery, Dotto, Frazho, Isidor, Klewer, Leonis, Molaro, Ontaneda, Orcino, Bergers, Boselli, Cutajar, Krugel, Treska, Whealy, Attix, Banovich, Barulich, Basmadjian, Booser, Chetelat, Detraz, Klempel, Lamusga, Mueske, Wandrei, Aulabaugh, Hogstad, Kneuer, Rembish, Salers, Wehnes, Berzin, Denbeste, Dilibero, Dimillo, Marouf, Suos, Wigant, Youm, Collmar, Delaplain, Gaesser, Mennis, Savole, Suhay, Breckler, Cariglio, Luebker, Redemann, Voith, Wollak, Bearson, Kotis, Panesar, Pfleeger, Pippel, Delinger, Hagenbaugh, Hardridge, Hensman, Hindelang, Luksch, Pankuch, Agrillo, Dully, Kletz, Magyari, Malchiodi, Aroyan, Heyduk, Morth, Raucher, Veeser, Dechirico, Havert, Lutu, Lynard, Milline, Monihan, Preske, Dekruif, Fraraccio, Kurani, Meseberg, Micheels, Pinkava, Suding, Adelmund, Cusher, Gavito, Kupcho, Meckling, Nickolai, Ruot, Stacher, Thuet, Tirico, Asemota, Froemel, Fusari, Kukral, Mantay, Merow, Scearcy, Tisue, Wanish, Bautsch, Cramblet, Dezwaan, Judisch, Salnave, Vardon, Bennicoff, Gangluff, Heinzl, Kawski, Kulacz, Luppi, Meloon, Oberheu, Pfanner, Salvado, Sertic, Canzona, Ingleby, Kieffner, Nohren, Pechmann, Ruhoff, Camplese, Jenzen, Kolish, Lovy, Meguiar, Teton, Tweedel, Boerum, Brachmann, Bronte, Elness, Gurdian, Hindbaugh, Luetke, Nesky, Sieczka, Staso, Trong, Voner, Chorey, Gramps, Harteau, Matoy, Nienberg, Paskoff, Sheers, Spadone, Viter, Zoppa, Carniglia, Dolford, Kassuba, Konyha, Manicone, Muus, Pucker, Readmond, Ronces, Scheriff, Scown, Vanord, Bergreen, Freaney, Hanmore, Hittel, Kuhaneck, Meazell, Pirez, Tandler, Thierbach, Zaiss, Arhelger, Blackfox, Cleavland, Janton, Koson, Libunao, Lipomi, Maurici, Pappy, Prickel, Ragnone, Stiehm, Tibert, Vaniman, Yaguchi, Anderlik, Blietz, Depalmer, Divoll, Grigor, Meridy, Pesso, Sinram, Sorial, Stift, Dolejsi, Fiesler, Giroud, Haberlein, Hanenberg, Keltgen, Margot, Pekarcik, Pellock, Rapose, Scelzi, Synek, Votel, Whicher, Archunde, Arnieri, Beckinger, Brandler, Brenot, Fleckner, Hidinger, Hlavenka, Kattau, Kilrain, Krett, Lessar, Mcghehey, Mittl, Prober, Staum, Trope, Angeron, Bockert, Heppell, Kulchar, Mistal, Serini, Tundo, Umayam, Yauri, Cockley, Dantuma, Deffinger, Detlor, Orzo, Policar, Pollema, Regets, Sirkel, Takamine, Tarbill, Yanker, Dugosh, Dunakin, Garrey, Hearley, Jeswald, Jinzo, Jochens, Pohto, Skomp, Yuman, Argudin, Ollhoff, Quazi, Quish, Ruske, Shacter, Soaper, Arlint, Bastardi, Borcky, Coners, Dreiss, Kayner, Kerouac, Menley, Mestel, Pensado, Schanaman, Turcic, Vrobel, Werhane, Anosike, Bensink, Dunbrack, Kensy, Peyman, Remmy, Scarafile, Schanilec, Silker, Barnts, Cleator, Ducatte, Ellenz, Frenyea, Gallander, Gladfelder, Glazman, Goeschel, Klinkel, Lanhart, Matsu, Padavano, Reeping, Seagers, Stenke, Tenhoff, Bestman, Carrone, Eystad, Helsey, Hennix, Heroman, Kenary, Lashelle, Marvich, Nervo, Nievera, Seuell, Bosacker, Delrosa, Devecchio, Devolld, Dickrell, Legeyt, Loupee, Negrey, Nundahl, Otchere, Sembler, Tongco, Wibbens, Bargender, Fonts, Lagestee, Lefurge, Magbitang, Maylin, Salwen, Sheraden, Vatland, Alcanter, Baltasar, Burrack, Desilet, Dornin, Gumpel, Hundred, Kirmer, Moimoi, Seufer, Solom, Traun, Amendolia, Dannatt, Decaluwe, Gjovik, Hoeflein, Jaccarino, Killing, Kubus, Lefforge, Mcelhenie, Mckrell, Saczawa, Saxey, Schanno, Boranian, Coplien, Ebstein, Gallagos, Hanyok, Maralit, Mondine, Popiela, Riseden, Sakakibara, Weinard, Wheatle, Yonas, Zolli, Abuelhawa, Boeving, Bogolin, Burran, Euchner, Euson, Felshaw, Ficocelli, Fosso, Golus, Hilsgen, Kitcher, Korsch, Kubasik, Molone, Ohlandt, Orrin, Shellem, Walnoha, Agerter, Angrum, Cellers, Connair, Ekanayake, Fenhaus, Gondos, Hallatt, Hromas, Huergo, Jahromi, Klinect, Luengo, Madorin, Magelky, Mehlbrech, Rentel, Rineman, Rozan, Scraggs, Solien, Spaethe, Szell, Trebon, Bunyak, Chanson, Couffer, Farniok, Latragna, Luking, Orawiec, Piggot, Pudelek, Rankey, Rekeweg, Shircel, Smugala, Strache, Tahaney, Wanket, Yenger, Belvill, Binzer, Danitz, Eschbaugh, Gerney, Housch, Ivezic, Kingseed, Leapline, Makings, Malavet, Matsil, Neives, Nohner, Oetker, Perler, Pfleghaar, Roohr, Surana, Zunica, Barkers, Calcott, Dattoma, Grayden, Husko, Koplik, Krugle, Leskanic, Llanto, Nassiff, Penski, Reinis, Ryniec, Vinti, Boldrick, Guetta, Gustaf, Holubek, Hurder, Katers, Knitt, Kosiara, Lesicko, Mccauliff, Morien, Pekins, Richfield, Simple, Yeazle, Debrabander, Delraso, Ferlise, Gramlick, Krisle, Lenares, Mismas, Pagarigan, Shahwan, Tamaru, Tanny, Valmoja, Birchum, Chirpich, Dellapina, Dimson, Gilfilen, Greenall, Itty, Kauflin, Kowalak, Arnaudo, Baloney, Benoliel, Bledsole, Brezeale, Buther, Comilang, Dilieto, Ezenwa, Fenyes, Geramita, Gionti, Girodat, Goodhall, Hackerman, Ivanhoe, Micchelli, Minino, Oelmann, Pucheu, Rodner, Rudland, Schlacht, Thiner, Tycz, Abduljabbar, Batcheler, Flemens, Giuliana, Hanusch, Hitomi, Klimmek, Kopaska, Maglieri, Mangnall, Minnes, Motko, Paison, Pankiw, Rieckman, Risola, Skaret, Tharakan, Zoran, Zuza, Bottle, Bucsit, Gester, Hanzy, Iravani, Jewels, Kanavy, Lassahn, Melgren, Stiebs, Strake, Tour, Vonahn, Wiebler, Arcoren, Belanus, Cassier, Cregut, Delehoy, Firlit, Frenchik, Hionis, Ingraldi, Kratina, Loeblein, Petran, Ramtahal, Roachell, Sharaby, Skrok, Swoap, Thuy, Altenau, Bevenue, Braudis, Calsyn, Dubisar, Error, Fefferman, Flaucher, Haeberlin, Haldonado, Hostak, Kachurak, Lubiano, Maydral, Meiwes, Paglino, Rodelas, Saberon, Sayadian, Tukua, Acunto, Azeredo, Bonert, Chandanais, Dornick, Gotberg, Inirio, Kashtan, Measmer, Osoy, Skierka, Snipp, Suker, Aszman, Belkofer, Ciummo, Desopo, Entzi, Flashman, Flauding, Furtah, Gehrels, Hochradel, Horeis, Messiha, Napert, Nesfield, Parkash, Pinches, Rasky, Remenar, Roelse, Siltala, Slamon, Tildon, Undlin, Urffer, Vallego, Yznaga, Benedito, Catalogna, Cerulo, Chiazza, Cicatelli, Euhus, Gilbody, Glitz, Ishino, Kajfasz, Laughy, Leichtle, Meuler, Mutt, Ramnarace, Saluta, Sloth, Wigler, Benditt, Brecklin, Ciamillo, Colarte, Duschen, Ewasko, Falivene, Fiamingo, Fullick, Gilleon, Hanzawa, Hisatake, Ingstad, Langus, Liseno, Mckines, Mesnick, Michalicek, Noiles, Phyall, Rabizadeh, Richmer, Segert, Shemon, and Sneeze.
Although we said there's little more to discuss, we have bring up one more topic. If you remember we pointed out that in the Greek version of Nero's name, dropping the last letter produces a name that adds to 616, not 666. And some variant manuscripts of Revelation have been found where the number is indeed 616.
So it turns out people have been asking the wrong question. Not "Which names can be coded to 666". Instead it seems we should ask "Which names code to 666 and with a modification of their name but using the same code, then sum to 616?"
Alas, this is a question that is a bit tricky to answer definitively. There are a lot of names to test and different types of codes and different ways to modify the name. However, we can draw on our list of American surnames to get an "understanding" of the question.
For instance, let's go through the list of names that code to 666 and find how many drop to 616 buy dropping any individual letter - but not just the last letter. That's an easy calculation - no extra computer programming is needed.
But what we found was that out of our 151,671 names that coded, we found only 1.3 % lost the needed 50 points to sum to 616. But that's still a lot of names. So sadly we can't determine if our friend Nero was the subject of the verse, certainly not simply by the mathematics.
But we can pose the question. Was the author of Revelation - traditionally considered to be John of Patmos - referring someone named Snyder, Newton, Campos, Sawyer, Farley, Rivers, Esparza, Carver, Connor, Rankin, Sharpe, Rutherford, Kirkpatrick, Beatty, Shapiro, Fraser, Bassett, Hobson, Easley, Wetzel, Prather, Stoner, Cutler, Julian, Rector, Coburn, Corral, Myrick, Forman, Scarborough, Fraley, Shackelford, Hershberger, Tavares, Tirado, Mancuso, Brandenburg, Munguia, Cousins, Wheaton, Nunley, Matheny, Worthy, Pulley, Wallen, Bussey, Woolsey, Porterfield, Marler, Taveras, Colton, Roybal, Whitehouse, Baylor, Abercrombie, Shaughnessy, Burwell, Hartwig, Sellars, Barros, Turnage, Prendergast, Ovalle, Marlin, Delafuente, Hawkes, Nestor, Ruppert, Conant, Mccandless, Burgett, Napoli, Massaro, Mallon, Finkelstein, Aguero, Mcavoy, Arneson, Dufour, Maddux, Wilborn, Sandhu, Cauley, Rozier, Bumgardner, Shubert, Dixson, Brawley, Peraza, Woosley, Nightingale, Townley, Lovely, Craver, Hollingshead, Mcglothlin, Shackleford, Roberto, Salzman, Mckown, Rankins, Vanhook, Chmielewski, Dunston, Klingensmith, Phares, Sibert, Vanlandingham, Sealey, Brockington, Adorno, Pollak, Santini, Mouser, Stalker, Mcgary, Vankirk, Kujawa, Gruver, Finlay, Butera, Samora, Arnone, Streit, Knickerbocker, Charpentier, Motter, Churchwell, Allmon, Courter, Witten, Martone, Robitaille, Slover, Yelton, Buckmaster, Pixley, Hampson, Ragusa, Sweeny, Bevilacqua, Carrol, Caywood, Blouin, Tavera, Wunder, Mikula, Scates, Shortridge, Ryerson, Stroupe, Seamon, Naples, Canton, Tauber, Cumberland, Lafreniere, Rayborn, Drinkwater, Haydon, Lamotte, Wysong, Forsman, Tedrow, Artman, Manthey, Lainez, Szczepanski, Durazo, Heintzelman, Dunnam, Trivett, Wolfenbarger, Cadwallader, Katzman, Nascimento, Gonyea, Staudt, Markert, Matthes, Parmar, Froman, Viloria, Faulkenberry, Marinez, Fujita, Curren, Maltby, Mallery, Silvera, Worthey, Stolte, Zachery, Dumais, Capron, Wildermuth, Purdue, Courtemanche, Hallum, Beddingfield, Soules, Porcaro, Stauber, Aubert, Rapier, Vivanco, Moncayo, Pettey, Harkleroad, Pattee, Heroux, Weisenberger, Wetter, Ybanez, Moscato, Mazyck, Hoffmeister, Goertz, Murnane, Frankenfield, Birney, Kicklighter, Schoenherr, Pizana, Vanalstyne, Yousef, Shimabukuro, Vandergrift, Buresh, Harnett, Cottman, Breyer, Kassel, Barris, Schwartzman, Citron, Schoenborn, Briney, Ellingsworth, Villacorta, Mcnitt, Brueggeman, Zinser, Antwine, Pursel, Khatri, Custard, Deputy, Lodato, Golembiewski, Alfrey, Nowack, Brinks, Lacount, Caverly, Vinciguerra, Crafts, Etherington, Ardito, Sugrue, Poffenberger, Hildebrant, Mazurkiewicz, Sitter, Rhodus, Ovalles, Shubin, Staubin, Graven, Mackintosh, Zambito, Stodola, Boulter, Elizarraras, Wehunt, Yacoub, Krasner, Bonser, Vidmar, Valeri, Hubley, Steinbrecher, Guynes, Oslund, Schoenfelder, Berson, Surace, Karner, Venuti, Mcconnaughey, Synder, Seamons, Warning, Witherington, Schreckengost, Steinmeyer, Lukacs, Battey, Corter, Auzenne, Crilly, Delaurentis, Angotti, Iwanski, Verburg, Jaquith, Ricotta, Biswas, Macallister, Hornak, Skyles, Perman, Sumida, Whalley, Straube, Franqui, Mcchristian, Bartko, Gainous, Waynick, Wigglesworth, Duplechain, Labrum, Luzier, Winterbottom, Hootman, Wahler, Schroepfer, Ashenfelter, Hausner, Masker, Carvin, Stockbridge, Mcclatchey, Spehar, Shapley, Hammersmith, Constancio, Lalley, Masone, Litzenberger, Macnaughton, Pendergrast, Swarey, Drzewiecki, Witters, Masood, Fassbender, Reifsnyder, Friedrichsen, Mazzara, Krishnamurthy, Morante, Lunney, Leazer, Louque, Pangelinan, Schaumburg, Kwiecinski, Macdonnell, Garciagarcia, Hanney, Flinchbaugh, Yother, Allers, Harcrow, Radney, Warnken, Sisney, Favero, Barraclough, Lofaro, Dalesandro, Munter, Schwartzberg, Condry, Tangney, Capparelli, Strite, Polivka, Burget, Busher, Matuska, Gatten, Brahmbhatt, Salahuddin, Mierzejewski, Culverhouse, Draney, Billow, Ruiter, Bartok, Karren, Vanliew, Slaght, Kowalkowski, Schwarzkopf, Reitan, Roggenbuck, Wahlers, Prucha, Zorich, Huster, Briody, Kurtenbach, Hasten, Lopezgarcia, Starman, Krzyzanowski, Halasz, Tuckett, Troiani, Borras, Sneath, Tomsic, Garcialopez, Travelstead, Dlouhy, Cullop, Szczesniak, Cyprian, Shingledecker, Lucious, Casselberry, Lukaszewski, Danson, Buysse, Whalin, Boylen, Hollingshed, Cashdollar, Verstraete, Fehrenbacher, Goates, Dobberstein, Sundby, Desaulniers, Berzins, Hopman, Leyton, Sporer, Berrey, Goldwasser, Lopera, Pressly, Kanouse, Antonopoulos, Evetts, Outler, Sramek, Christenbury, Hartsoe, Elvira, Spinola, Athens, Tarman, Barfuss, Noorani, Savoia, Hallums, Sherpa, Vecchiarelli, Vanderschaaf, Rotundo, Vannortwick, Todman, Trabue, Suther, Higinbotham, Turchi, Schnakenberg, Gutter, Ravenscraft, Causer, Rosten, Gutzwiller, Stucke, Vivero, Mcgray, Bouler, Potempa, Ranker, Svehla, Zervas, Mcgarrigle, Terbush, Cordts, Giannattasio, Walkenhorst, Lemarr, Mwangi, Dobratz, Braunschweig, Twiddy, Vandervelden, Levenhagen, Mergenthaler, Jumonville, Anthes, Pysher, Viviani, Youngerman, Bitters, Lorang, Rocque, Leaton, Lottes, Resetar, Sawchuk, Stjuste, Trueba, Cusmano, Kraner, Parrill, Daywalt, Durley, Parizek, Vallas, Alvelo, Mulanax, Crysler, Kastler, Pensyl, Trulock, Hubers, Streib, Rozzell, Fleischhacker, Sypher, Dunman, Cossin, Tornes, Tagliaferri, Arenson, Gravino, Kapper, Zinsmeister, Hoctor, Wolven, Marohl, Nussbaumer, Markes, Augspurger, Saller, Morgenroth, Scharfenberg, Schlup, Vassey, Wambolt, Arrona, Wehrly, Chesterfield, Dorsainvil, Cowens, Platner, Castagnola, Sweney, Stader, Butsch, Ringgenberg, Agrusa, Malesky, Schwertner, Wescoat, Haskew, Kamins, Alavez, Dysert, Starkel, Stueck, Vongphakdy, Dzialo, Buckhannon, Orwick, Bovenzi, Watling, Kattan, Wixted, Linzey, Sassman, Shanholtzer, Allmendinger, Artola, Lumbra, Rothweiler, Saucer, Worrel, Scheunemann, Pallett, Crunkleton, Kalter, Sainvil, Demoranville, Rinkenberger, Crosse, Gorgas, Spaniol, Kirschenmann, Bodensteiner, Bulnes, Holzhauser, Narula, Tschudy, Korzeniewski, Kathol, Robarts, Steuck, Zwiefelhofer, Pirani, Lookabaugh, Aguino, Fryson, Gulbrandson, Prosch, Dimarzo, Vosler, Larmer, Swartzbaugh, Luberto, Budzik, Cullars, Schuenemann, Shawler, Boxwell, Armento, Liakos, Rinderknecht, Woodis, Scattergood, Urbaez, Erstad, Moraski, Pashley, Kruszynski, Ruchti, Bodenschatz, Brawdy, Oramas, Boleyn, Wimpey, Breitbarth, Coulton, Hurney, Stoica, Zavodny, Jouett, Muffoletto, Stoecklein, Cushenberry, Ramler, Verkamp, Sferra, Trites, Wickenheiser, Zaccagnino, Porres, Macadangdang, Cusato, Feltenberger, Delashmutt, Dowtin, Montani, Vandersteen, Letona, Rettew, Picart, Staudenmaier, Gritzmacher, Scarver, Makins, Rapuano, Betancourth, Lichtenfels, Scharr, Annino, Garzone, Dsilva, Kairis, Sentman, Sollman, Vanthof, Piekarz, Cianciulli, Jabour, Maulsby, Peduzzi, Ordona, Bexley, Cancellieri, Fearrington, Buchmiller, Cisson, Ramundo, Porteus, Scherz, Yildiz, Compas, Hourani, Dumitrescu, Guadagnino, Schwendiman, Vidals, Granby, Trussel, Ransone, Vanlith, Broadstreet, Teschendorf, Bartrum, Wilberding, Brassington, Doerflinger, Hrubes, Huffstickler, Sieczkowski, Wahlin, Oberhelman, Sebolt, Causley, Bowlan, Unterseher, Garven, Schauwecker, Coryea, Krutsch, Kotrba, Wildberger, Curtain, Knippa, Liebermann, Przybyszewski, Almendinger, Hochstedler, Mlinar, Forsha, Hutley, Weidenhammer, Bethancourt, Lhotka, Schlotfeldt, Vincze, Cholewinski, Aravjo, Delavergne, Noorda, Petruso, Ingargiola, Presha, Schuth, Abdelfattah, Alfson, Duskey, Rouhani, Wallar, Kolodziejczyk, Larive, Makley, Rozich, Dorson, Calvery, Robustelli, Azizian, Furstenberg, Kasmer, Mauzey, Malotte, Kamholz, Spelts, Tardio, Maxted, Anzelmo, Puderbaugh, Schwalenberg, Spanel, Trathen, Vandenlangenber, Sturmer, Trubey, Darney, Echelbarger, Frydenlund, Komisar, Margis, Pallay, Rampino, Vongphachanh, Wolfinbarger, Quillan, Mioduszewski, Perezrodriguez, Makely, Sondergaard, Avello, Kolesnikov, Froneberger, Laudon, Morenz, Pickus, Steltenpohl, Linsenbigler, Montera, Parrie, Hathway, Passariello, Bartkiewicz, Franciscus, Hasper, Horkan, Lounds, Obrion, Messano, Paparo, Schwendinger, Falkenhagen, Agueros, Grosskreutz, Gruttadauria, Lachappelle, Splane, Buffenbarger, Nolazco, Pinola, Willcut, Roetman, Joaquim, Walcutt, Dottery, Libutti, Marske, Mussen, Osness, Cosley, Nicewonger, Stenman, Malzone, Newitt, Notley, Gruett, Hattersley, Damuth, Koscielski, Silvani, Sticht, Lleras, Salizar, Aulisio, Gildemeister, Cumberworth, Francy, Howett, Matulewicz, Antelo, Barthelmes, Colosky, Weimerskirch, Budziszewski, Lebourgeois, Norena, Niedringhaus, Diepenbrock, Wormald, Ruberti, Tavani, Vanvolkenburg, Devost, Brawer, Leiendecker, Antram, Corpora, Janulis, Batoon, Russick, Aljets, Kappers, Mikolay, Permaul, Robino, Hardenburgh, Meyerhoffer, Reinkemeyer, Wohlman, Burbey, Durian, Gherardini, Larish, Olivari, Matrone, Lavole, Repman, Wasniewski, Nikolopoulos, Pariser, Plassmeyer, Broudy, Mcgonagill, Patete, Vanlieshout, Wdowiak, Cullar, Sandercock, Parini, Sciancalepore, Hebblethwaite, Ludwikowski, Mazhar, Ollman, Pfouts, Stainer, Tircuit, Caulton, Cortney, Salvini, Titley, Cawvey, Fasullo, Gubrud, Martinezcruz, Mierau, Porsch, Spacht, Culter, Cutrera, Sundermann, Zelina, Mainzer, Poskey, Restad, Schlessman, Corradetti, Faurote, Kriegshauser, Lazaris, Morganstein, Schwam, Trosen, Bornes, Wondolowski, Culverwell, Czerny, Hollas, Lombardino, Priesmeyer, Spainhoward, Schweisthal, Topinka, Branthoover, Bivans, Boguszewski, Bonato, Dessart, Muckerheide, Belony, Schiermeyer, Beiswanger, Bottles, Sundman, Aluise, Muehlhausen, Robshaw, Lavier, Shuter, Talone, Bitely, Paruch, Cicciarelli, Kaschmitter, Kotzen, Perumal, Voboril, Warkenthien, Salant, Zalman, Corbisiero, Santavicca, Traube, Borino, Darrett, Rheinschmidt, Teevan, Thornbrough, Sweets, Clevenstine, Cruzmartinez, Harkavy, Helfenstein, Kaszubowski, Lannoye, Laucks, Polina, Pudney, Rodriguezperez, Barkemeyer, Brozak, Kvistad, Lattie, Reamey, Amorose, Helterbran, Mantyla, Ramponi, Perzanowski, Sharpes, Vialva, Webert, Lassig, Persha, Sandon, Bernatz, Kuchenmeister, Leibenguth, Patric, Planter, Scarnecchia, Sesson, Vanark, Druley, Tarrell, Vandeursen, Bloemendaal, Fleary, Mikulas, Ramotar, Wellinghoff, Borens, Meason, Stoffa, Stumme, Camorlinga, Desart, Samaro, Schifferdecker, Smurthwaite, Wigman, Kormann, Kreutzberg, Manfredini, Newall, Yanders, Gruszczynski, Llinas, Wetterling, Dziekonski, Kornman, Eleftheriou, Ellars, Kistenmacher, Pastorello, Pratka, Layell, Monsey, Scripps, Andrey, Estevan, Kolwyck, Schimmelpfennig, Terlouw, Cossentino, Longobardo, Patsch, Radulovich, Triest, Bilotto, Morett, Saubert, Sellar, Sisolak, Vanschyndel, Wraight, Castio, Duberry, Funderburgh, Warber, Witvoet, Zaeske, Horcasitas, Lontoc, Nystedt, Rosenkoetter, Siebenmorgen, Sulzberger, Widenhouse, Burtram, Cravin, Impagliazzo, Botticello, Budris, Innerarity, Jastrzembski, Krzyzewski, Polchlopek, Saines, Schuiteman, Swoverland, Armant, Averyt, Kratzenberg, Onufrak, Boctor, Karsner, Reynon, Aliotti, Blankenstein, Camerlengo, Latone, Matusiewicz, Regennitter, Vanlerberghe, Crumes, Gattoni, Grippa, Mortara, Nierengarten, Strawhacker, Abendschein, Hartsgrove, Hinderaker, Klucas, Tenhundfeld, Velsor, Apalategui, Braunscheidel, Coshatt, Dobberpuhl, Larvie, Valrie, Hassebroek, Hoffschneider, Lanzendorfer, Mazzitelli, Rubini, Suerth, Yanoff, Crusco, Kolias, Prashaw, Ruizgarcia, Hrouda, Lasasso, Rahimzadeh, Shteyn, Turbak, Vanboening, Elsenheimer, Gratta, Palonis, Slatkin, Urbank, Kafton, Noerenberg, Sequera, Schimmenti, Selsky, Cessor, Cowhey, Crivaro, Dieffenbacher, Fitzcharles, Holzendorf, Marchwinski, Stancavage, Abutin, Gravens, Iparraguirre, Mosure, Paukner, Wingenroth, Boslet, Cullors, Gallenberger, Madalinski, Nyseth, Rudley, Shurbet, Standingbear, Arduser, Ayoubi, Connour, Fluhart, Mauntel, Pedroncelli, Polera, Scherbring, Lassek, Manski, Schinnerer, Sharperson, Valandingham, Briest, Coffindaffer, Hunkapiller, Poolman, Sanguedolce, Schindeldecker, Yeutter, Hargro, Lohmar, Palino, Pazera, Beckelhimer, Dousay, Ortizgarcia, Samedy, Bormet, Bunday, Matteri, Mollan, Vandonselaar, Weynand, Cloyes, Deruvo, Malvar, Newtown, Jendrzejewski, Longenbaugh, Obrero, Paauwe, Schweinberg, Wesney, Wuestewald, Buchwalter, Contri, Gooday, Bauter, Bratko, Cumley, Duperry, Hamett, Petherbridge, Sucato, Barrenechea, Buckway, Chatto, Deleonardo, Nansen, Stitch, Cromey, Farquer, Lapore, Lynagh, Ringelstetter, Schollaert, Vollbracht, Watterworth, Crizer, Essery, Marugg, Rechtzigel, Tajiri, Binson, Coxsey, Gamsby, Quaine, Stepniewski, Eichelkraut, Hefelfinger, Jeavons, Lobbestael, Milenkovic, Ramariz, Russie, Wordsworth, Bezotte, Bissoon, Boulds, Delury, Kochanowicz, Madlangbayan, Oltean, Waxter, Ayalew, Cumbus, Diefenthaler, Gonska, Kindsvater, Planes, Vanstee, Bartzen, Burdis, Harnishfeger, Hilzendeger, Mersky, Rumfola, Butina, Hinterberger, Hofferbert, Iwamura, Mozzone, Nacionales, Venkatachalam, Weiskircher, Wolterstorff, Brodmerkel, Manzini, Panish, Roulet, Brazas, Garciaortiz, Gotfredson, Makuta, Matise, Patano, Tomasco, Tunkara, Vagner, Voigtlander, Bauersfeld, Bookey, Hauner, Krueckeberg, Ramiraz, Sobral, Tatreau, Windbigler, Bartenstein, Chatellier, Grimsby, Panopio, Peavley, Stiber, Clavon, Miyaji, Pajazetovic, Schweigart, Speichinger, Cattin, Daughty, Dupray, Hallisy, Haythe, Hodkiewicz, Kristjanson, Natole, Tockey, Elstun, Marulli, Mroczenski, Sietsma, Weiskittel, Wohlschlegel, Cronon, Garciaruiz, Ingebretson, Nkrumah, Oligschlaeger, Pardew, Segelstrom, Tippey, Aughey, Lovley, Whaler, Bridenthal, Insall, Kleinberger, Marzola, Meyerhoeffer, Rodano, Vanbecelaere, Yeazell, Fukuoka, Goraya, Kadlubowski, Kobylarczyk, Yagual, Ambrosy, Bigott, Causin, Ferras, Kissman, Nicolopoulos, Overshiner, Schallenberg, Swagel, Vassall, Vonderharr, Washek, Detrow, Fromknecht, Grissam, Rothey, Saumier, Magsby, Massenberg, Ropelewski, Schlagenhauf, Calvit, Cumins, Devasto, Ellerbroek, Hattem, Meinershagen, Mockenhaupt, Shourd, Stefanescu, Swiatlowski, Trenum, Bruckerhoff, Dumolt, Giannettino, Luethy, Marant, Mcgartland, Scorse, Tapken, Bromberger, Lojano, 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Layburn, Leidenheimer, Neutze, Norkiewicz, Pattock, Paulish, Ramireztorres, Richwalski, Sbarro, Stacherski, Storley, Vranic, Wallens, Zierman, Brotzge, Buatti, Courtin, Cupper, Durlak, Faktorovich, Gjuraj, Goodberlet, Goyanes, Graphenteen, Mustedanagic, Neofotistos, Nerona, Shoutz, Solaas, Tagart, Yander, Zahurak, Auiles, Catter, Degruttola, Habersetzer, Hamoui, Hasselbusch, Krpata, Merzlak, Pomainville, Rydzak, Smithingell, Sproch, Tesfamichael, Vollweiler, Worlund, Bavery, Bognot, Brockhoeft, Colliander, Enarson, Gosciminski, Hallgrimson, Hulliberger, Jethwa, Kayfes, Kerkau, Krudop, Merhaut, Planert, Quackenboss, Quindt, Riveragonzalez, Roncaglione, Sallin, Sierzputowski, Solowey, Stockelman, Suomela, Thyagarajan, Volzke, Wardyn, Barnfather, Bayoumi, Bonior, Carlington, Cassimatis, Chayrez, Chounlamany, Destra, Druery, Fuentas, Grochowalski, Katlin, Kiswani, Kleinwachter, Mcglashing, Peneaux, Rowoldt, Schiedermayer, Soodsma, Vondielingen, Wilmath, Zampano, Abiuso, Alzoubi, Arient, Bajrektarevic, Barwin, Bovair, Boyher, Brones, Caroway, Fontanarosa, Gonzalezramos, Henningsgaard, Huberts, Kiewra, Kronman, Lapeyrolerie, Lutostanski, Papula, Paracuelles, Perros, Portzen, Raskopf, Rebentisch, Samual, Skarvan, Stathem, Streno, Topasna, Totland, Trently, Troxtel, Aruffo, Ashenhurst, Comery, Craparotta, Denormandie, Dobrzenski, Lingenfelser, Reaster, Tangherlini, Vanwieringen, or Wegscheider?
Or was he referring to someone he and the early Christian community already knew for sure had a name that could be coded to both 666 and 616 using a simple traditional numbering system and of which they all knew beforehand?
Oh, well, enough said. You decide.
No doubt the ruminations on a cartoon website will not likely change a practice of a couple of millennia. And playing with numbers is a lot of fun, and no harm comes from it as long as the practitioners realize there is no utility for predicting the future or rendering judgment of a person's index of evil.
But for those who do wish to keep fiddling with an alphabet that didn't even exist in biblical times, they can take solace from the politician who - at least as the probably apocryphal story goes - found that the state legislature was considering a law requiring kids to study foreign languages.
He was against it, he said. After all, he added, "If the English language was good enough for Jesus Christ, it's good enough for me!"
In addition to the Java applet in the text above, you can use spreadsheets to investigate the various codings. Although we saw "Bill Gates" codes to 666 with m = 1 and c = 46 (the famous Internet claim that "Bill Gates III" codes up to 666 by using ASCII assignments is incorrect), you can easily use Excel, particularly if you have the Solver module. For our equation, you can set the sheet up like:
|(Name)||1||1||(Sum of Letter Positions)||=B1*C1+LEN(A1)*D1||=(666-E1)^2|
Calculate the sum from A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, ..., Z = 26, and place the value in Cell D1. Run Excel's Solver where you minimize Cell F1 by changing the values in Cells A1 and B1, making the constraint that A1 and B1 are integers.
For those who know something about programming in Visual Basic, you can automatically sum the letters (if they're all capitals) using a Visual Basic Macro like:
|DIM i as INTEGER|
|DIM name as STRING|
|DIM letter as STRING|
|DIM nameLength as INTEGER|
|DIM letterValue as INTEGER|
|DIM sum as INTEGER|
|name = CELLS(1,1)|
|nameLength = Len(name)|
|sum = 0|
|For i = 1 To nameLength|
|letter = Mid(name, i, 1)|
|letterValue = Asc(letter) - 64|
|If letterValue > 0 Then|
|sum = sum + letterValue|
|CELLS(1,4) = sum|
This will sum up the letters in the name in Cell A1 (use all capitals in the name), and then place the output into cell D1. Then you can run the Solver.
On the other hand, to get accurate mathematics, you need to use a good sampling of names. It can be very tedious to manually run the Solver several hundred, thousands, or tens of thousands of times. In some versions of Excel, the Solver works in loops (in the current version used by the author, sadly it does not). But if you want to look at all possible numbers you can do a simple grid search like:
|minimizedFinalSum = 1 * initialSum + nameLength * 0|
|minimumObjective = Abs(666 - minimizedFinalSum)|
|aMin = 20|
|bMin = 20|
|For i = 1 To aMax|
|For j = 1 To bMax|
|finalSum = i * initialSum + nameLength * j|
|objectiveFunction = Abs(666 - finalSum)|
|If objectiveFunction < minimumObjective Then|
|aMin = i|
|bMin = j|
|minimumObjective = objectiveFunction|
|minimizedFinalSum = finalSum|
|If finalSum = 666 Then Exit For|
|If finalSum = 666 Then Exit For|
Obviously we've omitted variable declarations, but if you put this function into a loop that also automatically reads a list of names and calculates the sum of the alphabet locations, it will find solutions that code the names as close to 666 as you can get. The "Exit For" statements prevent you pulling out more solutions than you need and keeps the values of m low.
(Note: The program above tends to favor cases where c ≠ 0. To give preferences to simple multiplier codes, a searching for variable m and keeping c = 0 is incorporated into the program.)
Of course, we must have the inevitable disclaimer stating that although these macros worked admirably for the author of CooperToons, there is no warranty express or implied that this will work for anyone else. (Also the author respectfully requests the readers attempting this on their own to not ask him for help to debug your program. He has enough trouble debugging his own and surely the readers know plenty of geeks among their own circle of friends).
We saw above that the variable of the equations are distributed in a random fashion. But there are a few things to note about how names fit with certain codes.
In sampling the surnames, it was found some solutions had m = 0 and c was an integer. That is, the solutions were trivial in that the length of the name was divisible into 666. For most of the cases, though, the optimized solutions where m = 0 did not code to 666. The programs in the writing of this essay and the Java applet automatically omit the solutions with m = 0.
Also note that in some cases, you do not need names to have the same length to share the same code. These codes are the special cases where c = 0 and therefore A = m, B = 2m, C = 3m, ..., Z = 26m. Looking at the equation will show that for such codes the length of the name is irrelevant.
For codes to work where c = 0, the sum of the alphabetic locations and the multiplier (m) must be prime factors or products of the prime factors of 666, which are 2, 3, 3, 37. Out of 15,403 surnames that coded to 666, these criteria were met by 3.4 % of the names.
Of course, with only four factors (3 is counted twice), this category at first seems restrictive, and for all practical purposes you would think the names must be limited where the sum of the alphabetic locations equals to 74 or 111. So the codes must be only c = 0 with m = 18 or 6. On the other hand there are bonafide American surnames like AA, AB, and ABBA, and they code to 666 using c = 0 and m = 333, 222, or 111.
For most names the multiplier is a fairly small number. For instance, the alphabetic locations of "Kissinger" sums to 111, the product of 3 and 37, and hence the multiplier is 6. Names like "Baker", "McKee", and "Koch" had the multiplier 18. The name "Head" sums to 666 if you multiply the letter positions by 37, the largest prime factor of 666.
Finally it's instructive to look at the histograms, but drawn in a way to show how the names that code to 666 distribute and those that don't code. Virtually all names with the length of 6 code to 666. Also we earlier pointed out that names that codes to 666 have the maximum of the distribution where the sum of alphabetic locations is close either to 72 (which codes with A = 9, B = 18, ..., A = 154) and 74 (which codes with A = 100, B = 101, C = 102, ..., Z = 125). But on the histogram where the coding and non-coding names are shown by different colors, we can see that the names that have a greater tendency not to code to 666 are those with higher values of Σb(i). So the longer names have fewer instances where the coding conditions are met. Taken together, the two histograms show us why you get such a sharp narrow distribution of the final coded names with the distribution skewed toward the left.
"The Math Behind the Myths", Charles F. Cooper, Skeptical Inquirer. A far more concise discussion of the topic. It was only after writing this 16,000 plus word webpage that the author realized he had a topic suitable for a serious publication for this famous journal dedicated to countering pseudoscience and superstition. Because the computer programs for handling the entire data base of surnames were not yet developed, the Skeptical Inquirer article employed "only" first 18,839 American surnames that we provided in the master list link above. Of course, that is large enough a sample that the conclusions of the abbreviated print article and this garrulous online essay are the same.
As one who has struggled through the publication process in the past, the author was gratified at the quick response and consideration of the staff of the Skeptical Inquirer. For the curious and other potential authors, the process went as follows. First - and this is always the first thing to do - check the magazine's guidelines to make sure your article is indeed something suitable for the magazine. You should also pay particular attention to statements regarding preferences for shorter articles. But the author was satisfied the article was indeed suitable for the publication, the article was written paying strict attention to the guidelines of style and formatting (particularly to the style of footnotes and references). Cutting a 16,000 plus word article to less than 750 words was quite a challenge but an interesting exercise in laconicity. Of course, proofreading was done multiple times, particularly as catching errors is not a CooperToons forte as scurrilous, knaves, varlets, and curmudgeons have gleefully pointed out.
Next, rather than send the article directly to the editor, the author decided to first send a query. To query or not to query is often the question. But an article sent in response to a query is not, strictly speaking, unsolicited and so will avoid the problem that sometimes unsolicited manuscripts may languish in a stack for a while. Let the author of CooperToons hasten to say he is sure the good people at the SI are most conscientious in reviewing all their submissions - unsolicted and otherwise. But just to be sure, the author wrote a two sentence query letter outlining the topic of the article and why he thought it would be suitable, educational, and entertaining for the readers of the SI. Writing a brief, succinct, and complete query can itself be nearly as great a challenge as writing the article itself.
Naturally the editor responded most promptly. Even better he said he thought the article might indeed be of interest to his readers. So the manuscript was E-mailed in the editor who in turned passed it on for comment from a reviewer, who was a specialist in the topic of "hidden" codes. The opinion was the article was indeed worth publishing. After a minor revision (due to the author not being clear on a particular point), within a few weeks, a proof was received for correction, and the article scheduled for publication.
Revelation 13:18, Young's Literal Translation. The astute will notice that the assignment of the numbers to the Hebrew alphabet (via the Greek transliteration) is not actually a solution of the equations in this essay. But on danger of repeating ourselves, there really no limits to the type of codes and alphabets that can be contrived which increases many times the number of names that can be equated to the number. As Martin Gardner pointed out (see reference below) and as we clearly show here, with a little effort virtually any name can be equated with 666.
"Nero Antichrist: Patristic Evidence for the Use of Nero's Naming in Calculating the Number of the Beast (Rev. 13:18), Francis X. Gumerlock, Westminster Theological Journal 68.2 (Fall 2006), pp. 347-360. One criticism about Nero as the subject of Revelation is the apparent lack of mention in the early - that is the "patristic" - writings of the Church. Some dissidents say the idea wasn't promulgated until around 1830 and is modern nonsense of the ilk that Shakespeare didn't write Shakespeare's plays. This article, though, provides evidence that the idea that Nero was the Designated Bad Guy was indeed one of the early interpretations. But it's also evident that the early writers had no more idea about what the heck the verse was talking about than anyone else.
And it is refreshing (after wearying of how often religious discussions are really spittle flinging diatribes about political differences) to find calm, level headed, and intelligent articles in theological journals.
Nero, Edward Champlin, Belknap Press (2003). A modern biography by the world's acknowledged expert on Nero. A lot of discussion which puts Nero's oddball behavior in perspective which points to Nero being a great spinmeister who gathered his support from the lower classes of Rome. Too bad the lower classs weren't in charge of the army.
But Nero was still a jerk.
The Magic Numbers of Dr Matrix, Martin Gardner, Prometheus Books (1985). The complete compilation of Martin's Dr. Matrix columns from his "Mathematical Games" articles. The columns are among Martin's best. He tells of his "meeting" numerologist Dr. Irving Joshua Matrix (that is, I. J. Matrix - a mathematical joke, by the way) and his Eurasian daughter Iva (who usually used her mother's name Toshiyori). Throughout the next twenty-five years, Martin keeps bumping into Dr. Matrix who discusses various mathematical puzzles, including ways 666 has been extracted from various names.
An Introduction to the Bootstrap, Bradley Efron and R.J. Tibshirani. Yes, this is more than middle school math but is an excellent text - well written and with clear examples - on data analysis where you don't make any assumptions regarding distributions of the data and such stuff. More exactly termed resampling analysis, the bootstrap has emerged as the analysis method of choice and were used to calculate the margin of error for the sampling the surnames.
"Genealogy Data: Frequently Occurring Surnames from Census 2000", http://www.census.gov/genealogy/www/data/2000surnames/index.html. This web site made getting accurate numbers much easier than it could have been.
The Importance of Being Henry: Statements by X, Y, Z, etc., 1968 - 1974. In the years immediately following the Summer of Love, certain individuals gave the author of CooperToons stern warning about the impending demise of the world and pointed out the various indications - such as the appearance of Dr. Henry Kissinger on the political scene and his connection to Revelation 13:18 - that the truth of the predictions and their swift fulfillment were not be doubted. Having technical training, the author saw this as an excellent test for the veracity of the theories that would give rise to such predictions. After all, the true test of the of any theory is the ability to make true, precise, and reliable predictions for events that have not yet happened. Of course, strictly speaking, an occurrence of a predicted event does not logically prove the theory is true, but failure of a prediction does indeed prove the theory's falsity.
Lest too restrictive conclusions be drawn, the belief in the 1960's and 1970's that the world - or at least civilization - would end in the 1980's was by no means limited to individuals of specific philosophies or political affiliations. In an interview in the mid-1970's and published in an internationally circulated magazine, a famous scientist and Nobel Laureate made the statement that "civilization as we know it" would come to an end in the 1980's. Such a statement was, as the others, wrong, but has enough ambiguity so you can weasel out if the prediction failed. That is, if civilization as we know it did not come to an end in the 1980's, given the massive changes is society that occurred in the decades of the Computer and Information Revolution, you can redefine the terms "civilization" and "as we know it" so that even if the prediction didn't come true, then the prediction maybe, perhaps, possibly, and sort of, did come true, after all. Predicting events after the fact and by changing definitions when the original prediction didn't come true is always a way to get your predictions spot on.